Table 3

 Characteristics of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus according to the presence or absence of the metabolic syndrome

NCEPWHO
Metabolic syndrome (+) (n = 30)Metabolic syndrome(−) (n = 72)p ValueMetabolic syndrome (+) (n = 33)Metabolic syndrome (−) (n = 69)p Value
NCEP, National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III; NSAIDs, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs; SLEDAI, Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Disease Activity Index; SLICC, Systemic Lupus International Collaborating Clinics Damage Index; WHO, World Health Organization; +, present; −, absent.
Demographics
    Age (years)44 (40–50)39 (31–46)0.0644 (38–48)40 (30–46)0.18
    Female (%)86.793.10.4493.989.90.71
    Caucasian (%)63.368.10.6563.668.10.66
    Education >12 years (%)63.368.10.6560.669.60.38
Cardiovascular risk factors
    Systolic blood pressure (mm Hg)128 (120–138)113 (105–121)<0.001120 (113–129)115 (105–126)0.07
    Diastolic blood pressure (mm Hg)76 (71–85)70 (64–79)0.0274 (65–85)73 (65–81)0.68
    BMI (kg/m2)33 (29.7–35.9)25.8 (22.8–30)<0.00133.9 (30.8–39)25.2 (22.7–28.5)<0.001
    Homocysteine (μmol/l)11 (8.8–12.2)8.8 (6.6–10.6)<0.0019.8 (8.5–11.5)8.9 (7.3-11.1)0.10
    Cumulative smoking (pack-years)0.1 (0–16.8)0 (0–1.1)0.120 (0–19)0 (0-1)0.10
    Cholesterol (mg/dl)204 (148–222)163 (142–184)0.04177 (132–215)163 (146–202)0.56
    Low-density lipoprotein (mg/dl)129 (84–146)92 (80–111)0.02109 (78–133)94 (81–125)0.42
    High-density lipoprotein (mg/dl)36 (31–46)52 (40–58)<0.00136 (32–51)52 (39–58)0.003
    Lipoprotein (a) (mg/dl)25 (6.9–60.8)9.6 (4.5–34)0.0217 (5–47)10.1 (5–34)0.29
    Triglycerides (mg/dl)158 (129–202)87 (68–123)<0.001143 (88–201)89 (69–139)<0.001
Glucose (mg/dl)88 (78–98)81 (75–88)0.00691 (82–94)80 (74–86)<0.001
Insulin (pg/ml)485 (377–752)222 (134–439)<0.001529 (461–784)208 (128–309)<0.001
Creatinine (mg/dl)0.9 (0.7–1)0.8 (0.7–0.9)0.040.8 (0.7–0.9)0.8 (0.7–0.9)0.53
Current use of NSAIDs n (%)12 (40)38 (52.7)0.2814 (42.4)36 (52.2)0.40
Disease characteristics
    Disease duration (years)7 (4–11)6 (3–12)0.415 (3–11)8 (3–11)0.35
    SLEDAI4 (2–6)4 (0–6)0.306 (2–6)4 (0–6)0.10
    SLICC0 (0–2)1 (0–1)0.910 (0–1)1 (0–1)0.88
    Current dose of corticosteroids (mg/day)5 (0–10)4 (0–6)0.245 (0–9)5 (0–5)0.36
    Cumulative corticosteroid dose (g)18.2 (4.6–38.1)9.8 (2.7–26.5)0.1012.8 (2.7–29.2)12.5 (4.1–29.2)0.80
    Current use of corticosteroids (%)7056.90.2757.662.30.67
    Current use of hydroxychloroquine (%)63.363.9166.762.30.83
Other markers of inflammation
    Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (mm/h)24 (13–39)16 (7–36)0.1024 (13–37)16 (7–37)0.09
    C reactive protein (mg/l)6 (3–11)3 (3–5)0.0017 (4–11)3 (3–4)<0.001