Table 1

 Characteristics of the patients at baseline and follow-up

Patients with pSS (n = 32)Patients with sSS (n = 28)
BaselineFollow-upp ValueBaselineFollow-upp-valueNormal values for controls (n = 36)3,6
CRP, C reactive protein; ESR, erythrocyte sedimentation rate; F, female; Ig, immunoglobulin; IgM-Rf, rheumatoid factor; M, male; NA, not available; ND, not defined; NS, not significant; pSS, primary SS; sSS, secondary SS; SM/SL, submandibular/sublingual glands; VAS, visual analogue scale.
Values are numbers of patients and mean (SD, range). For sialometry data, see figs 1 and 2.
*Significant difference between pSS and sSS at baseline and follow-up (p<0.05).
†Sodium concentrations are dependent on flow rate. The mean (SD) flow rate normal values are 6 (7) and 5 (5) mmol/l at baseline and follow-up for pSS, and 8 (7) and 7 (5) mmol/l for sSS, respectively.
Sex (M/F)2/305/23
Age (years)51 (17, 21–76)55 (17, 23–86)55 (13, 25–78)58 (13, 28–83)
Disease duration (months)31 (39, 0–156)77 (47, 10–194)43 (62, 0–312)82 (64, 6–352)
Anti-SSA or anti-SSB positive n(%)*24 (75%)NA14 (50%)NA
Sialochemistry: parotid glands
Sodium (mmol/l)†21 (19, 1–63)19 (25, 1–78)NS24 (24, 1–94)11 (14, 2–49)NS14 (2)
Potassium (mmol/l)26 (7, 11–38)25 (8, 14–46)NS23 (7, 13–46)23 (5, 15–32)NS24 (6)
Chloride (mmol/l)28 (14, 8–53)31 (20, 17–70)NS38 (29, 10–114)22 (14, 10–55)NS16 (12)
Total protein (g/l)1.16 (0.55, 0.50–2.19)1.0 (0.5, 0.6–2.3)NS1.48 (1.13, 0.52–5.63)0.96 (0.30, 0.51–1.42)NS0.6 (0.6)
Amylase (103 U/l)594 (447, 58–1713)540 (285, 248–1036)NS670 (359, 38–1486)595 (256, 154–1319)NS590 (520)
Sialochemistry: SM/SL glands
Sodium (mmol/l)18 (13, 1–55)18 (13, 2–49)NS14 (12, 1–48)14 (16, 1–59)NS11 (6)
Potassium (mmol/l)17 (7, 6–43)16 (4, 7–22)NS17 (6, 4–31)19 (3, 14–28)NS17 (6)
Chloride (mmol/l)26 (12, 10–52)23 (10, 7–43)NS30 (27, 16–121)20 (11, 8–55)NS16 (6)
Total protein (g/l)0.79 (0.98, 0.25–7.76)0.6 (0.4, 0.1–1.79)NS0.77 (0.46, 0.16–1.84)0.74 (0.54, 0.17–2.56)NS0.8 (0.6)
Amylase (103 U/l)97 (86, 26–390)95 (71, 14–220)NS153 (264, 2–1152)148 (225, 36–977)NSND
Laboratory tests
ESR (mm/h)32 (21, 5–80)29 (23, 3–80)NS33 (33, 3–103)28 (27, 4–133)NS0–10
CRP (mg/l)9 (13, 0–52)7 (8, 3–40)NS19 (32, 0–138)9 (9, 0–27)NS<5
IgM-Rf (kIU/l)209 (252, 2–1160)216 (230, 11–650)NS189 (238, 11–768)165 (174, 3–565)NS<11
IgG (g/l)20.9 (8.0, 3.6–39)19.7 (7.8, 9.9–39.1)<0.0519.1 (9.1, 10.1–46.6)15.6 (5.7, 7.4–28.8)<0.058.5–15
IgA (g/l)2.9 (1.6, 0.4–6.9)2.8 (1.2, 0.8–5.1)<0.053.5 (2.0, 1.2–8.8)2.9 (1.4, 0.8–5.0)<0.100.7–4.0
IgM (g/l)2.8 (4.0, 0.7–22.6)2.1 (1.8, 0.4–7.2)<0.051.8 (0.8, 0.8–3.9)1.6 (1.1, 0.5–3.7)<0.050.4–2.3
Subjective VAS scores (100-mm scale
Oral dryness during the day55 (28, 0–100)48 (24, 0–90)NS56 (33, 0–100)51 (37, 0–95)NS
Oral dryness during the night67 (31, 0–100)60 (26, 0–98)NS70 (34, 0–100)68 (34, 0–98)NS
Difficulty swallowing food without additional liquids61 (33, 0–100)55 (31, 0–100)NS59 (36, 0–99)55 (39, 0–97)NS