Table 8

 Studies dealing with efficacy of influenza vaccination in SLE patients

StudyYearSLE patientsControls; study designParametersHumoral response of SLE patientsInfluence of drug treatment
GMT, geometric mean titre; SLE, systemic lupus erythematosus.
Brodman et al519784658 healthy controlsGMTsSimilar/decreasedNo significant effect of prednisone, azathioprine, or hydroxychloroquine
23 patients on prednisone, meanTitres ⩾40
20 mg/d
3 patients on azathioprine, 50 mg/d
28 patients on hydroxychloroquine
Louie et al61978118 healthy controls4-fold risesSimilar
Ristow et al419782929 healthy controls, matched for prevaccination antibody titre4-fold risesDecreased/similarNo significant effect
GMTs(trend towards lower immunogenicity)
Williams et al719781936 healthy controls4-fold risesDecreasedTrend towards lower immunogenicity when using prednisone
Influenza vaccination in 19 patients and 18 controls, placebo vaccination in 21 patients and 18 controls, double blind; controls were matched for prevaccination antibody titreGMTs
Titres ⩾40
Herron et al219792032 healthy controls, open label study4-fold risesSimilarTrend towards lower immunogenicity when using prednisone
Kanakoudi-Tsakalidou et al3200111Both patients and healthy controls (5) were children4-fold risesSimilarNo significant effect
Titres ⩾40
Abu-Shakra et al11200224None, immunogenicity of vaccination was compared with expected immunogenicity4-fold risesDecreasedTrend towards lower immunogenicity in case of azathioprine or ⩾10 mg prednisone/day
Titres ⩾40