Table 1

 Causes of secondary HOA

Pulmonary
Benign conditions
    Bronchial carcinoid
    Cystic fibrosis
    Sarcoidosis
    Bronchiectasis
    Tuberculosis
    Chronic infections
    Pleural methothelioma
    A-V fistulae
    Lipid pneumonia
    Plasma cell granuloma of the lung
    Lung mass of xanthogranulomatous inflammation
    Pulmonary alveolar microlithiasis
Primary pulmonary malignancies
    Small cell carcinoma of the lung
    Adenocarcinoma
    Large cell carcinoma
    Squamous cell carcinoma
    Hodgkin’s disease
    Fibrosarcoma
    Carcinosarcoma of the lung
    Pulmonary metastatic disease
Extrapulmonary malignancies
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma
Oesophageal carcinoma
Oesophageal leiomyoma
Breast cancer
Thymic carcinoma
Soft tissue sarcoma
Malignant fibrous histocytoma
Hodgkin’s disease
Undifferentiated thyroid cancer
Renal cell carcinoma with pulmonary metastasis
Cardiovascular disease
Cyanotic congenital heart disease
Subacute bacterial endocarditis
Patent ductus arteriosus
Aneurysms
Aortic prosthesis
Hepatic
Biliary atresia
Primary sclerosing colangiitis
Wilson’s disease
Primary biliary cirrhosis
Benign gastrointestinal lesions
Gastrointestinal polyposis
Crohn’s disease
Ulcerative colitis
Regional enteritis
Gastro-oesophageal reflux and oesophagitis
Achalasia
Miscellaneous
Graves’ disease
Thalassaemia
Infected graft with endotoxin: infected aortic graft
AIDS
Neurogenic origin: vagotomy, hemiplegia
Docetaxel chemotherapy for breast cancer