Table 1

 Ultrasonographic investigation

Anatomical structureUltrasonographic findings
Shoulder
Long biceps tendonTenosynovitis, partial tear, complete tear
Subscapularis, supraspinatus, and infraspinatus tendonsTendinosis, partial tear, full thickness tear, calcification
Subacromial-subdeltoid and subcoracoid bursaeBursitis
Acromio-clavicular jointEffusion/synovitis, erosions, osteophytes
Glenuhumeral joint (axillary, anterior, and posterior recesses)Effusion/synovitis
Humeral head (anterior, lateral, posterior, and axillary aspects)Erosions
Supraspinatus tendonImpingement
Wrist/hand
Radiocarpal joint (dorsal and palmar aspects)Effusion/synovitis, power Doppler signal
Wrist tendons (dorsal, palmar, extensor carpi ulnaris)Tenosynovitis
First carpometacarpal jointEffusion/synovitis, erosions, osteophytes
Second metacarpophalangeal jointEffusion/synovitis, erosions, osteophytes, power Doppler signal
Second proximal interphalangeal jointEffusion/synovitis, erosions, osteophytes
Second finger flexor tendonsTenosynovitis
Ankle/foot
Tibiotalar joint (anterior and posterior aspects)Effusion/synovitis
Talonavicular jointEffusion/synovitis, erosions, osteophytes
Anterior tibialis, flexor, peroneus, and posterior tibialis tendonsTenosynovitis
Posterior tibialis tendonPartial tear, complete tear
Achilles tendonTendinosis, enthesitis, paratenonitis, partial tear, complete tear
Retrocalcaneal bursaBursitis
Calcaneous (posterior and plantar aspects)Erosions, spur
Plantar fasciaFasciitis
First metatarsophalangeal jointEffusion/synovitis, erosions, osteophytes, power Doppler signal
Fifth metatarsophalangeal jointEffusion/synovitis, erosions, osteophytes
Knee
Suprapatellar recessEffusion, synovial hypertrophy
Bone surfacesErosions, osteophytes
Quadriceps and patellar tendonsTendinosis, enthesitis, partial tear, complete tear
Prepatellar, superficial and deep infrapatellar, anserin bursaeBursitis
Gastrocnemius-semimembranous bursaBaker’s cyst
Femoral articular cartilageLesion
Medial collateral ligamentPartial tear, complete tear