Table 3

 Evidence of efficacy: effect size and number needed to treat

ComparisonOutcomeLevel of evidence*ES (95% CI)NNT (95%CI)Reference
*See table 1 for definitions.
CI, confidence interval; ES, effect size; NNT, number needed to treat; NSAID, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug; SUA, serum uric acid; VAS, visual analogue scale; –, not available.
Acute management
Colchicine v placeboPain VAS ↓Ib, 48 hours0.87 (0.25 to 1.50)17
⩾50% pain relief3 (2 to 11)
Overall clinical improvement1.21 (0.61 to 1.92)
Ice+colchicine + prednisone v colchicine + prednisonePain VAS ↓Ib, 7 days1.15 (0.15 to 2.12)18
NSAIDs v placebo⩾50% pain reliefIb, 4 days3 (1 to 14)21
Prophylaxis and chronic management
Colchicine v placebo⩾1 attack preventedIb, 3 months2 (1 to 6)22
Colchicine + probenecid v probenecidAttacks/patient/monthIb, 6 months0.74 (0.08 to 1.40)23
Azapropazone v allopurinol⩾1 attack preventedIIa, 6 months7 (4 to 17)24
SUA↓0.00 (−0.26 to 0.26)
Allopurinol + colchicine v colchicine⩾1 attack preventedIb, 1 year9 (−9 to 3)25
SUA↓1.39 (0.78 to 2.01)
Benzbromarone v allopurinol in patients with renal impairmentSUA↓Ib, 2 years1.50 (0.76 to 2.24)3 (2 to 15)14
Fenofibrate v placeboSUA↓Ib, 6 weeks1.13 to (0.18 to 2.07)26
Triglyceride↓0.95 (0.02 to 1.87)