Table 5

 Selected risk factors and co-morbidities associated with gout

Risk factor/co-morbidity levelEvidenceAdjusted RR (95% CI)Reference
The relative risk was adjusted by age, sex, other risk factors and comorbidities.
*While it was not associated with the occurrence of gout, lead in patellar bone affected the serum uric acid level with a partial regression coefficient of 0.007 (p = 0.022). However, lead in blood or tibial bone was not associated with either the serum uric acid or gout.
CI, confidence interval; RR, relative risk.
Male sexIIb7.64 (7.46 to 7.81)2
MeatIIa1.41 (1.07 to 1.86)40
SeafoodIIa1.51 (1.17 to 1.95)40
Alcohol (10 g increase daily)IIa1.17 (1.11 to 1.22)41
DiureticsIIa1.72 (1.67 to 1.76)2
ObesityIIb3.81 (1.22 to 11.84)14
HypertensionIIa3.93 (1.60 to 9.70)36
Coronary heart diseaseIIb1.75 (1.70 to 1.79)2
Diabetes mellitusIIb1.11 (1.06 to 1.16)2
Chronic renal failureIIb4.95 (4.28 to 5.72)2
Triglyceride, Apo BIIbIncreased to p<0.0538, 39
Lead (patellar bone)*IIa0.99 (0.44 to 2.10)45