Table 1

 Baseline clinical and laboratory characteristics and outcomes after leflunomide treatment

Patient NoSexAgeDisease durationDuration of nephritisWHO classPrevious immunosuppressive agentsSLEDAIProteinuriaDuration on leflunomideResponseAdverse events
*Patient newly diagnosed with lupus nephritis and cryptococcal meningitis; †patient presented with nephrotic syndrome did not have a renal biopsy owing to prolonged clotting time and the disease was managed as proliferative nephritis because of presence of active urine sediments.
CYC, cyclophosphamide; AZA, azathioprine; CSA, ciclosporin A; CR, complete response; PR, partial response; TF, treatment failure. Complete response (CR) was defined as proteinuria ⩽0.5 g/day, with normal urinary sediment and normal values for both serum creatinine and creatinine clearance. Partial response (PR) was defined as either a reduction of >30% in proteinuria or proteinuria <2 g/day in a previously nephrotic patient with normal urinary sediment and stable renal function. Treatment failure (TF) was defined as no response at the end of follow up or requirement for additional immunosuppressant treatment. For those patients who could not complete the 12 months study, data at the last visit were assessed for response. ‡One patient withdrew because of inefficacy; §four patients withdrew owing to side effects. HT, arterial hypertension requiring additional anti-hypertensive drugs. WL, weight loss of 3–4 kg at the end of the trial owing to real body weight reduction because they remained nephrotic.
1F4323122.74CYC, AZA, CSA172.112TFHT, WL
2F3391.12, 5NIL*64.412PR
3F39716.92, 5CYC, AZA,62.40.5TF§Transaminitis
4F49546.13AZA162.212CRWarfarin od, GI bleed, HT
5F4175.92, 5CYC142.312CR
6M55119.15AZA123.26PR‡Vasculitis, died
7F21444†AZA163.110CR§Severe pruritis
8F2791062, 5AZA. CYC12512PR
10F30915.73CSA163.612PRHerpes zoster, HT
11F431311.73, 5CYC, AZA83.712CRHerpes zoster
12F33423CYC, AZA165.112CRHT
13F53539.43CYC, AZA104.712PRHerpes zoster, HT,WL
14F30754.83, 5AZA, CSA43.60.5TF§Facial rash
16F461511.65CYC, AZA122.412PRHT