Table 2

 Collision related factors in whiplash claimants stratified by sex

CharacteristicMale* (n = 2926)Female* (n = 4533)p Value
Values are n (%).
*Missing data: 3/7462 claimants did not provide information on sex. Of the remaining cohort of 7459, the missing cases were as follows: time of collision, 2; position in vehicle, 43; direction of impact, 36; vehicle rolled over, 32; vehicle not drivable after collision, 201; vehicle stopped at time of collision, 164; type of road, 5; road surface, 24; seat belt, 52; headrest, 278; head position, 1358; and retained a lawyer, 9.
†Subjects were asked “From what direction was the “main” impact to your vehicle” to account for multiple impact cases.
§Assessed by insurance company as being over 50% at fault for collision.
Time of collision
    Day1870 (63.7)3185 (70.3)<0.01
    Night723 (24.7)875 (19.3)<0.01
    Sunrise116 (4.0)140 (3.1)NS
    Sunset216 (7.4)332 (7.3)NS
Location in vehicle
    Driver2391 (82.4)3065 (67.9)<0.01
    Front passenger421 (14.5)1251 (27.7)<0.01
    Other passenger88 (3.0)199 (4.4)NS
Direction of impact†
    Front892 (30.7)1076 (23.8)<0.01
    Rear1147 (39.4)1922 (42.6)<0.01
    Driver’s side480 (16.5)823 (18.2)NS
    Passenger’s side391 (13.4)692 (15.3)NS
Vehicle rolled over221 (7.6)216 (4.8)NS
Vehicle not drivable after collision1516 (53.1)2582 (58.7)<0.01
Vehicle stopped at time of collision1145 (39.7)1871 (42.4)NS
Type of road
    Highway478 (16.3)614 (13.6)NS
    Rural road217 (7.4)196 (4.3)<0.01
    Urban street2124 (72.6)3540 (78.2)<0.01
    Other106 (3.6)179 (4.0)NS
Road surface
    Dry1826 (62.7)2838 (62.7)NS
    Wet278 (9.5)446 (9.9)NS
    Icy808 (27.7)1239 (27.4)NS
Seat belt
    Lap/shoulder2555 (88.3)4195 (93.0)<0.01
    Lap186 (6.4)205 (4.5)NS
    None153 (5.3)113 (2.5)<0.01
Had headrest2097 (74.4)3731 (85.6)<0.01
Head position
    Straight ahead1601 (65.4)2351 (64.4)NS
    Turned right441 (18.0)550 (15.1)<0.01
    Turned left407 (16.6)751 (20.6)<0.01
Retained a lawyer385 (13.2)493 (10.9)NS
At fault for collision§367 (12.7)617 (13.7)NS