Table 3

 Primary and secondary outcome scores over time according to group allocation using intention to treat analysis

Mean score (95% CI)Mean change (95% CI)Mean difference in change between groups (95%CI)
Physiotherapy (n = 73)Placebo (n = 67)PhysiotherapyPlacebo
NOTE: there were no significant differences in baseline scores across intervention groups.
AQoL, assessment of quality of life index (ranging from −0.04 to 1.0, with higher scores indicating greater quality of life; CI, confidence interval; KPS, knee pain scale (severity subscale ranging from 0 to 36 points and the frequency subscale ranging from 0 to 30 points, with higher scores indicating more severe or more frequent pain); SF-36, Medical Outcomes Study 36 item short form (ranging from 0 to 100 points, with higher scores indicating better quality of life); VAS, visual analogue scale (ranging from 0 = no pain to 10 = worst pain possible); WOMAC, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities osteoarthritis index (pain scores range from 0 to 20 points and physical function scores from 0 to 68, with higher scores indicating more severe pain/physical function).
Primary outcome
VAS: Pain on movement (cm)
Baseline (0 weeks)5.3 (4.8 to 5.7)5.2 (4.8 to 5.6)
Final (12 weeks)3.1 (2.7 to 3.5)3.2 (2.7 to 3.6)−2.2 (−2.6 to −1.7)−2.0 (−2.5 to −1.5)−0.1 (−0.8 to 0.5)
Follow up (24 weeks)3.2 (2.8 to 3.6)3.5 (3.0 to 4.1)−2.1 (−2.6 to −1.6)−1.6 (−2.2 to −1.0)−0.5 (−1.2 to 0.3)
Secondary outcomes
VAS: Restriction of activity (cm)
Baseline (0 weeks)4.7 (4.2 to 5.3)4.8 (4.2 to 5.3)
Final (12 weeks)3.1 (2.7 to 3.6)2.9 (2.4 to 3.4)−1.6 (−2.0 to −1.2)−1.9 (−2.4 to −1.3)0.3 (−0.5 to 1.0)
Follow up (24 weeks)2.9 (2.4 to 3.4)3.1 (2.5 to 3.7)−1.9 (−2.3 to −1.4)−1.7 (−2.3 to −1.0)−0.2 (−0.9 to 0.6)
WOMAC: Pain
Baseline (0 weeks)8.2 (7.5 to 8.9)8.0 (7.3 to 8.6)
Final (12 weeks)6.1 (5.4 to 6.8)5.8 (5.1 to 6.5)−2.1 (−2.7 to −1.4)−2.2 (−2.9 to −1.5)0.1 (−0.9 to 1.0)
Follow up (24 weeks)5.8 (5.1 to 6.5)6.0 (5.2 to 6.8)−2.4 (−3.2 to −1.6)−2.0 (−2.7 to −1.2)−0.4 (−1.5 to 0.7)
WOMAC: Physical function
Baseline (0 weeks)27.6 (25.2 to 29.9)28.4 (26.0 to 30.7)
Final (12 weeks)19.8 (17.4 to 22.1)20.2 (17.7 to 22.7)−7.8 (−9.7 to −5.8)−8.2 (−10.6 to −5.8)0.4 (−2.7 to 3.5)
Follow up (24 weeks)20.0 (17.4 to 22.6)21.7 (19.0 to 24.4)−7.5 (−10.1 to −5.0)−6.7 (−9.3 to −4.1)−0.9 (−4.4 to 2.7)
KPS: Severity
Baseline (0 weeks)16.6 (15.5 to 17.7)16.4 (15.5 to 17.3)
Final (12 weeks)13.3 (12.3 to 14.2)13.8 (12.9 to 14.8)−3.3 (−4.2 to −2.4)−2.6 (−3.6 to −1.5)−0.8 (−2.1 to 0.6)
Follow up (24 weeks)13.5 (12.5 to 14.5)14.3 (13.4 to 15.3)−3.1 (−4.2 to −1.9)−2.1 (−3.1 to −1.0)−1.0 (−2.5 to 0.6)
KPS: Frequency
Baseline (0 weeks)23.5 (22.5 to 24.5)22.8 (21.8 to 23.7)
Final (12 weeks)19.2 (18.0 to 20.3)19.7 (18.3 to 21.1)−4.3 (−5.4 to −3.3)−3.0 (−4.4 to −1.7)−1.3 (−3.0 to 0.4)
Follow up (24 weeks)19.4 (18.1 to 20.7)20.3 (18.9 to 21.7)−4.1 (−5.3 to −3.0)−2.5 (−3.9 to −1.1)−1.7 (−3.5 to 0.1)
SF-36: Bodily pain
Baseline (0 weeks)53.7 (48.5 to 58.9)57.0 (52.8 to 61.1)
Final (12 weeks)65.0 (60.1 to 70.0)66.4 (61.5 to 71.2)11.4 (6.3 to 16.5)9.4 (4.3 to 14.6)2.0 (−5.2 to 9.2)
Follow up (24 weeks)60.4 (55.0 to 65.7)61.8 (56.3 to 67.4)6.7 (0.6 to 12.8)4.9 (−1.1 to 10.9)1.8 (−6.7 to 10.3)
SF-36: Physical function
Baseline (0 weeks)40.8 (36.0 to 45.6)40.8 (36.6 to 45.0)
Final (12 weeks)53.0 (48.2 to 57.7)48.7 (43.2 to 54.2)12.2 (8.0 to 16.4)7.9 (3.6 to 12.2)4.3 (−1.7 to 10.3)
Follow up (24 weeks)50.5 (45.7 to 55.4)46.2 (40.7 to 51.8)9.7 (5.4 to 14.1)5.4 (1.0 to 9.8)4.3 (−1.8 to 10.4)
SF-36: Physical role
Baseline (0 weeks)33.7 (24.6 to 42.8)34.7 (24.8 to 44.6)
Final (12 weeks)48.5 (39.7 to 57.3)50.7 (39.9 to 61.5)14.8 (6.2 to 23.4)16.0 (6.5 to 25.5)−1.2 (−13.9 to 11.5)
Follow up (24 weeks)47.0 (38.4 to 55.6)46.5 (36.7 to 56.3)13.3 (4.3 to 22.4)11.8 (2.7 to 20.8)1.6 (−11.1 to 14.3)
AQoL
Baseline (0 weeks)0.45 (0.41 to 0.49)0.46 (0.42 to 0.51)
Final (12 weeks)0.50 (0.46 to 0.53)0.51 (0.46 to 0.55)0.05 (0.02 to 0.07)0.04 (0.02 to 0.07)0.00 (−0.03 to 0.04)
Follow up (24 weeks)0.52 (0.48 to 0.56)0.48 (0.43 to 0.52)0.07 (0.03 to 0.10)0.01 (−0.01 to 0.04)0.05 (0.01 to 0.10)
Quadriceps strength (N/kg)
Baseline (0 weeks)3.9 (3.5 to 4.3)4.0 (3.7 to 4.4)
Final (12 weeks)4.2 (3.8 to 4.5)4.1 (3.7 to 4.5)0.3 (0.0 to 0.5)0.0 (−0.2 to 0.3)0.2 (−0.1 to 0.5)
Follow up (24 weeks)4.2 (3.8 to 4.6)4.2 (3.8 to 4.6)0.3 (−0.2 to 0.6)0.1 (−0.1 to 0.4)0.2 (−0.2 to 0.5)
Step test (n)
Baseline (0 weeks)11.6 (10.8 to 12.4)11.0 (10.1 to 12.0)
Final (12 weeks)13.1 (12.4 to 13.8)12.4 (11.4 to 13.4)1.5 (0.9 to 2.1)1.4 (0.7 to 2.0)0.1 (−0.7 to 1.0)
Follow up (24 weeks)13.7 (13.0 to 14.4)12.8 (11.9 to 13.8)2.1 (1.5 to 2.7)1.8 (1.1 to 2.6)0.3 (−0.6 to 1.2)