Table 1

 Components of the physiotherapy intervention

Treatment componentFrequency of application
VAS, visual analogue scale.
Knee tapingContinuous (day and night)
    Taping of the patella to adjust the components of medial glide, anterior tilt, lateral tilt and unload the infrapatellar fat pad or pes anserinusReapplied at weekly intervals by therapist for first four weeks, and by participant thereafter
Soft tissue massage of the knee performed in extension5 min
Thoracic spine mobilisation5 min
    Performed while sitting with symptomatic leg extended and elevated on a chairStarting in second treatment session
• Buttock squeeze: isometric gluteal contraction in sitting with co-contraction of hip adductors5 s hold × 5 repeats
• Buttock rock: concentric contraction of the quadratus lumborum with isometric contraction of gluteus maximus in sitting10 s hold × 5 repeats on each side
• Rock and stand: sit to stand exercise with isometric contraction of hip adductors5 repeats
• Half squats: performed with co-contraction of the gluteals and hip adductors3 × 5 repeats
• Step ups: onto a 10 cm step. Isometric contraction of gluteals muscles onto the supporting leg while stepping up with the other leg. Then lower back down to floorIf able to complete 5 repeats with pain <3 cm on VAS
5 repeats on each leg
• Standing balance: with a piece of theraband around the ankles, standing on one leg while moving the other leg backwards on a diagonal5 repeats each leg
After fourth week, increased to 10 repeats
• Home exercise programmeThree times daily
• Exercises from the supervised exercise programme