Table 8

 Strength of recommendation

InterventionResearch evidence*SOR based on efficacy (A–D)SOR based on all evidence and clinical expertise (VAS, mean (SEM))
EfficacySide effectsCost effectiveness
*Evidence was categorised according to the hierarchy in table 1.
“–”, not supportive, “+”, supportive; “±”, uncertain. For example, Ia + (GI) means there is category Ia evidence to support the statement that the treatment causes GI side effects.
SOR, strength of recommendation; VAS, visual analogue scale (0–100 mm, 0 = not recommended at all, 100 = fully recommended); SEM, standard error; GI, gastrointestinal; CV, cardiovascular; CNS, central nervous system. –, not available; N/A, not applicable owing to absent hip-specific data.
Pharmacological + non-pharmacological treatmentIV +D86.94 (5.82)
Treatment tailored according to risk factors, severity of hip OA, and patient expectationsIII +C92.19 (3.39)
EducationIb +A71.75 (6.42)
ExerciseN/A71.58 (6.30)
Insole/stickIV +D61.72 (6.91)
Weight lossIII +D68.28 (5.79)
ParacetamolIa −, III ± (GI)Cost savingN/A79.19 (3.82)
NSAIDsIa +Ia +, III+ (GI)A79.36 (4.18)
CoxibsIa + (GI protection)Ia ± (CV)Higher GI risk populationA79.44 (3.51)
MisoprostolIa + (GI protection)Ia + (diarrhoea)Higher GI risk populationA46.06 (5.62)
H2 Blockers (double dose)Ia + (GI protection)High GI risk populationA31.28 (6.81)
PPIsIa + (GI protection)A73.86 (3.97)
OpioidsIb +Ia + (any, GI, CNS)A43.97 (4.36)
GlucosamineN/A37.06 (5.03)
ChondroitinIb +A34.44 (4.76)
DiacerheinIb ±Ib + (dyspepsia)Short termInconclusive27.83 (5.38)
Avocado soybean unsaponifiableIb −Not recommended31.72 (4.79)
Hyaluronic acidIII +C22.83 (4.17)
Intra-articular steroidIb −Not recommended41.47 (5.74)
OsteotomyIII +C59.64 (5.19)
THRIII +Women with younger ageC86.86 (2.42)