Table 1

ÔÇâUltrasonographic scanning of joints and criteria of effusion/synovitis

JointCriteria of effusion/synovitis
GlenohumeralPosterior recess, transducer transverse to the humerus, shoulder in neutral position: maximum distance from the posterior labrum to the posterior infraspinatus and teres minor tendon (posterior capsule) >3 mm
Acromioclavicular and sternoclavicularTransducer longitudinal to the joint: maximum distance from the articular bony margin to the joint capsule >3 mm
ElbowLongitudinally from the anterior recess with the joint in extension: maximum distance from the humeral capitelum or the coronoid fossa to the joint capsule >2 mm
WristLongitudinally from the dorsal aspect with the joint in neutral position: maximum distance from the bones to the joint capsule >2 mm
MCP and PIP joints of handsLongitudinally from the dorsal view with the joint in extension: maximum distance from the articular bony margin to the joint capsule >2 mm
HipAnterior recess, transducer longitudinal to the femoral neck, with the joint in neutral position: maximum distance from the cortex, at the middle of the concavity of the femoral neck to the joint capsule >7 mm or loss of concavity of the joint capsule
KneeLongitudinally from the suprapatellar recess, in a supine position, with the joint in 30┬░ of flexion: maximum anterior-posterior diameter of the suprapatellar bursa >3 mm
AnkleLongitudinally from the anterior recess with the joint in slight plantar flexion: maximum distance from the talar bone to the joint capsule >2 mm
SubtalarLongitudinally to the joint with the ankle in slight plantar flexion: maximum distance from the articular bony margin to the joint capsule >2 mm
Mid-tarsalLongitudinally from the dorsal view: maximum distance from the articular bony margin to the joint capsule >2 mm
MTP and PIP of feetLongitudinally from the dorsal view with the joints in extension: maximum distance from the articular bony margin to the joint capsule >2 mm