Table 1

 Prevalence and isotype distribution of aCL and LA in different populations of patients with primary APS and SLE

ReferenceEthnicity or country (n)Any aCL isotype (%)IgG aCL(%)IgM aCL (%)IgA aCL (%)LA (%)Correlation with thrombosis and/or 
 >fetal loss
*IgG and IgM aCL or LA, or both; †patients from seven European countries: 97.7% white, 2.3% other races; ‡in-house ELISA test done at Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center in New Orleans; §LUMINA Study Group: LUpus in MInority populations: NAture v nurture. From University of Alabama at Birmingham, University of Texas-Houston Health Science Center, and University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston; ¶both studies from All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi; **population comprised 164 Chinese, 26 Malay, and 10 Indian. No differences were found in the prevalence of raised aCL between the three ethnic groups.
NA, data not available.
Sturfelt et al (1987)77Sweden (59)544713NANANo
Sebastiani et al (1991)78Italy (64)44449NANAYes
Gourley et al (1996)15Ireland (95)443128NANAYes
Sebastiani et al (1999)79European†(574)NA231414NAYes
Cervera et al (2002)80European (1000)87.943.612.2NA53.6Yes
American (North, South)
Wilson et al (1988)7Black American (44)27100NANANAYes
Alarcon-Segovia et al (1989)81Mexico (500)53393316NAYes
Chahade et al (1989)82Brazilian (54)20205.5NA17NA
Molina et al (1997)18Afro-Caribbean‡ (136)212221NANo
Alarcon et al (1999)83Hispanic§(70)7*NANANANANA
Alarcon, et al (1999)83African-American§ (88)11*NANANANANA
Alarcon et al (1999)83Caucasian§ (71)5*NANANANANA
Diri et al (1999)17African American (8)100NA7587.5NAYes
Cucurull et al (1999)84African American‡ (100)3318724NAYes
Cucurull et al (1999)16Colombian‡ (160)25181315NAYes
Cucurull et al (1999)16Spaniards‡ (160)34271516NAYes
Aguirre et al (2001)85Chilean‡(129)3016148NAYes
Saluja et al (1990)12India¶ (76)27271NANAYes
Jones et al (1991)8Malaysia**(200)16.5132.5NANANo
Wong et al (1991)86China (91)46441411No
Wong et al (1991)86China (91)46441411No
Ninomiya et al (1992)87Japan (349)3528NANA27Yes
Saxena et al (1994)88India¶ (70)19NANANA16yes
Tsutsumi et al (1996)89Japan (308)NA124NA8Yes
Shrivastava et al (2001)90India (76)515175NANo
Middle-east Africa
Malaviya et al (1996)91Kuwaiti, Middle-Eastern and North-African Arabs (29)75NANANANAYes
Al Maini et al (2002)92Gulf Arabs and Arabs of 
 >Persian descent (83)NA17.314.2NANAYes
Houman et al (2004)93Tunisian (North Africans) (100)66NANANANAYes