Table 1

 Prevalence of the different symptoms during the year before sampling and during the entire course of the disease

SymptomPrevalence past year (%)Frequency ever (%)
*Glomerulonephritis is defined as the occurrence of at least one of the following: ever proteinuria >1.5 g/24 h, or >30% decline in renal function, or repeatedly active urine sediment, or uncontrolled hypertension, or biopsy proven glomerulonephritis.
Cutaneous symptoms74.293.3
    Butterfly rash33.068.0
    Photosensitivity29.360.7
    Alopecia27.257.1
    Oral ulcers13.330.6
    Localised discoid rash10.626.1
    Disseminated discoid rash6.413.7
    Generalised erythema4.313.7
    Genital ulcers4.36.3
    Subacute cutaneous LE2.63.4
    Chilblains1.31.3
    Lupus profundus0.71.4
Sicca symptoms25.028.0
    Xerostomia22.225.6
    Xerophthalmia19.822.7
General symptoms76.392.3
    Fatigue67.085.5
    Raynaud’s phenomenon40.347.8
    Fever16.766.2
Musculoskeletal symptoms74.497.0
    Arthralgia69.191.7
    Arthritis36.476.4
    Myalgia36.354.1
    Serositis16.947.9
    Pleuritis12.139.2
    Pericarditis5.824.9
Renal symptoms32.458.9
    Proteinuria29.757.2
    Glomerulonephritis*21.848.3
    Cellular casts15.645.1
Neurological symptoms39.860.1
    Headache23.437.6
    Concentration disorder17.625.0
    Depression12.420.1
    Encephalopathy5.59.3
    Seizures5.412.7
    Cerebrovascular accident2.410.2
    Psychosis2.47.9
    Peripheral neuropathy1.86.7
    Cranial neuropathy1.21.2
    Transverse myelitis0.61.9
Haematological symptoms58.684.3
    Lymphopenia41.765.9
    Leucopenia34.567.0
    Thrombopenia11.736.2
    Haemolytic anaemia8.622.6
Thrombosis3.013.2
Recurrent abortion06.3