Table 1

Biological interventions investigated in rheumatoid arthritis

mAb, monoclonal antibody; IL, interleukin; ICAM, intracellular adhesion molecule; CTLA-4, cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4; Ig, immunoglobulin; TNF, tumour necrosis factor; IFN, interferon. Adapted with permission from Breedveld FC.12
Cell surface-directed therapy
    Anti-CD3 mAb, anti-CD4 mAb, anti-CD5 mAb, anti-CD7 mAb, anti-CD20 mAb (rituximab), anti-CD25 mAb, anti-CD28 mAb, anti-CD52 mAb, IL2 fusion protein, anti-ICAM-1, CTLA-4-Ig (CD86 binding)
Cytokine targeted therapy
    TNF antagonists (mAb, soluble TNF receptor)
    IL1 receptor antagonist
    IL6 antagonist (mAb against IL6 or IL6 receptor)
    Administration of cytokines (IL4, IL10, IFNγ, and IFNβ)
Tolerance induction
    Application of antigens (collagen II, HCGP-39)
    T cell or T cell receptor vaccination
    Interference with T cell activation (CTLA-4-Ig)
Inhibition of chemokines
Inhibition of complement activation
High dose intravenous immunoglobulins
Plasmapheresis, immunoadsorption column
Autologous bone marrow transplantation