Table 1

Treatment programme

Type of treatmentContentGoalsFrequency per week (duration)
*Intensity and choice of interventions in the individualised physiotherapy were tailored to the patients needs; †massage and electrotherapy were not part of the standard treatment programme. They were prescribed individually to the patients needs.
Individualised physiotherapy*Specific manual therapy techniques, passive range of motion exercises, assisted range of motion exercises, movement against manual resistance, instruction in home exercise programmeIncrease in range of motion, facilitation of movement, reduction in pain, induction of relaxation, muscle strengthening4 (30 min)
Group exercise programmeActive range of motion exercises, strengthening exercise, weightbearing endurance training, coordination trainingMuscle strengthening, improvement of muscle endurance, increase in range of motion, improvement of coordination2 (30 min)
Group hydrotherapyNon-weightbearing endurance exercises, strengthening exercises, active range of motion exercisesMuscle strengthening, improvement of endurance, increasing range of motion, induction of relaxation2 (30 min)
Swimming with flippersNon-weightbearing muscle strengtheningMuscle strengthening, improvement of endurance4 (individual)
Thermal therapyFango (mud packs)Induction of muscular relaxation3 (20 min)
Patient educationInformation about disease process, joint protection, pain medication, self management techniques, coping techniques, relaxation techniques, nutritionChange of behaviour, improvement of self help techniques, improvement in knowledge of treatment options, improvement in the ability to relax2 (60 min)
Massage†Deep frictions, classical massageInduction of relaxation, reduction of painIndividual
Electrotherapy†Galvanisation, iontophoresis with diclofenacReduction of painIndividual