Table 5

 Anatomical structure with ultrasound plane; localisation of measurement; mean, maximum, and minimum value; and two standard deviations at the ankles, feet, and toes

Anatomical structureUltrasound planeExact localisationMean value (mm)Minimum (mm)Maximum (mm)2 SD (mm)
Tibiotalar joint: anterior bone-capsule distanceAnkle: anterior longitudinal midline1 cm distal of tibiotalar joint1.10.43.81.0
Tibiotalar joint: posterior bone-capsule distanceAnkle: posterior longitudinal midlineDirectly distal of tibiotalar joint1.20.33.71.1
Talonavicular joint: anterior bone-capsule distanceAnkle: anterior longitudinal midlineMaximum diameter1.40.44.21.2
Tibialis anterior tendon: transverse diameterAnkle: anterior transverseAt tibiotalar joint8.25.014.23.5
Tibialis anterior tendon: sagittal diameterAnkle: anterior transverseAt tibiotalar joint2.51.14.51.3
Tibialis anterior tendon: hypoechoic rimAnkle: anterior transverseAt tibiotalar joint0.80.12.80.9
Tibialis posterior tendon: transverse diameterAnkle: medial transverseDirectly below level of medial malleolus8.43.114.14.2
Tibialis posterior tendon: sagittal diameterAnkle: medial transverseDirectly below level of medial malleolus2.81.36.01.8
Tibialis posterior tendon: hypoechoic rimAnkle: medial transverseDirectly below level of medial malleolus1.20.23.81.6
Peroneus longus tendon: transverse diameterAnkle: lateral transverseDirectly below level of lateral malleolus6.02.512.33.7
Peroneus longus tendon: sagittal diameterAnkle: lateral transverseDirectly below level of lateral malleolus3.00.86.11.6
Peroneus longus tendon: hypoechoic rimAnkle: lateral transverseDirectly below level of lateral malleolus1.10.24.11.2
Peroneus brevis tendon: transverse diameterAnkle: lateral transverseDirectly below level of lateral malleolus4.31.813.03.0
Peroneus brevis tendon: sagittal diameterAnkle: lateral transverseDirectly below level of lateral malleolus2.50.54.21.3
Peroneus brevis tendon: hypoechoic rimAnkle: lateral transverseDirectly below level of lateral malleolus0.90.22.20.8
Achilles tendon: transverse diameterAnkle: posterior transverse2 cm proximal of calcaneus14.38.220.64.1
Achilles tendon: sagittal diameterAnkle: posterior longitudinal2 cm proximal of calcaneus4.32.66.71.6
Achilles tendon: hypoechoic rimAnkle: posterior transverse2 cm proximal of calcaneus1.00.24.42.3
Retrocalcaneal bursa: longitudinal diameterAnkle: posterior longitudinalMaximum longitudinal diameter5.51.113.95.0
Retrocalcaneal bursa: transverse diameterAnkle: posterior transverseMaximum transverse diameter5.50.913.45.4
Retrocalcaneal bursa: sagittal diameterAnkle: posterior longitudinalMaximum sagittal diameter1.30.33.41.4
Plantar fascia: sagittal diameterPlantar: longitudinalAt distal plantar end of calcaneus3.41.85.31.3
MTP I joint: maximum bone-capsule distanceMTP I joint: anterior longitudinalRegion proximal of MTP I1.70.24.81.8
MTP II joint: maximum bone-capsule distanceMTP II joint: anterior longitudinalRegion proximal of MTP II1.60.43.91.5