Table 4

 Anatomical structure with ultrasound plane; localisation of measurement; mean, maximum, and minimum value; and two standard deviations at the hips and knees

Anatomical structureUltrasound planeExact localisationMean value (mm)Minimum (mm)Maximum (mm)2 SD (mm)
Hip joint: bone-capsule distanceHip joint: anterior longitudinal parallel to femoral neckMiddle of anterior concavity of femoral neck5.
Trochanteric bursa: bone-capsule distanceMajor trochanter: transverseMost lateral aspect of major trochanter1.
Knee: suprapatellar recess midline, longitudinal diameterKnee: anterior suprapatellar mid-line longitudinalMidline aspect suprapatellar22.24.451.220.1
Knee: suprapatellar recess midline, transverse diameterKnee: anterior suprapatellar mid-line transverseAt maximum transverse diameter13.81.337.614.4
Knee: suprapatellar recess midline, sagittal diameterKnee: anterior suprapatellar mid-line longitudinalAt maximum longitudinal diameter2.
Knee: suprapatellar recess, lateral longitudinal diameterKnee: anterior suprapatellar lateral longitudinalAt lateral femoral epicondylus22.84.452.823.0
Knee: suprapatellar recess, lateral transverse diameterKnee: anterior suprapatellar lateral transverseAt lateral femoral epicondylus10.81.737.713.5
Knee: suprapatellar recess, lateral sagittal diameterKnee: anterior suprapatellar lateral longitudinalAt lateral femoral epicondylus2.
Knee: cartilage sagittal diameterKnee: anterior suprapatellar transverse, 90° flexionDirectly proximal of patella3.
Knee: patellar tendon sagittal diameterKnee: anterior infrapatellar longitudinal2 cm distal of distal end of patella3.
Knee: deep infrapatellar bursa longitudinal diameterKnee: anterior infrapatellar longitudinalMaximum longitudinal diameter6.12.410.44.4
Knee: deep infrapatellar bursa transverse diameterKnee: anterior infrapatellar transverseMaximum transverse diameter6.22.514.56.2
Knee: deep infrapatellar bursa sagittal diameterKnee: anterior infrapatellar longitudinalMaximum sagittal diameter2.70.712.06.1
Knee: popliteal bursa longitudinal diameterKnee: posterior longitudinalMaximum longitudinal diameter22.25.652.721.0
Knee: popliteal bursa transverse diameterKnee: posterior transverseMaximum transverse diameter10.11.629.514.6
Knee: popliteal bursa sagittal diameterKnee: posterior transverseMaximum sagittal diameter5.