Table 1

Cumulative 10 year prevalence and incidence within two and 10 years from diagnosis of extra-articular manifestations in a representative sample of Spanish patients with RA with a mean disease duration of 10 years

DefinitionCumulative prevalence (95% CI)Incidence within two years (95% CI)Incidence within 10 years (95% CI)
Rheumatoid nodulesSubcutaneous nodules with a diameter ⩾5 mm in extensor face of extremities and fingers. Nodules in atypical locations must have a histological confirmation24.5 (21.5 to 27.5)5.2 (3.8 to 7.1)15.7 (13.0 to 18.9)
Secondary Sjögren’s syndromePresence of RA plus xerophthalmia and/or xerostomia, both objective and subjective (Vitali et al15)17.0 (14.4 to 19.6)2.3 (1.4 to 3.7)9.1 (6.9 to 11.8)
Anterior atlantoaxial subluxationDistance between atlas and axis in a lateral x ray of the cervical column in forced flexion is >3 mm, regardless of the presence of symptoms12.1 (9.8 to 14.4)0.2 (0.02 to 1.0)3.2 (1.9 to 5.3)
Carpal tunnel syndromePresence of symptoms (paraesthesia, pain or tiredness in the median nerve territory) plus one positive sign (Phalen or Tinel), or nerve conduction studies demonstrating median nerve entrapment, or previous treatment or surgery for carpal tunnel syndrome10.7 (7.8 to 13.6)3.5 (2.4 to 5.0)8.0 (6.2 to 10.4)
Interstitial lung diseaseConfirmed either by restrictive pattern or decrease in Tlco or KCO in pulmonary function tests or by high resolution CT scan3.7 (2.4 to 5.0)0.5 (0.2 to 1.4)1.9 (1.1 to 3.5)
SerositisPleuritis or pericarditis documented in the clinical record as related to RA or appearing as a new finding in chest x ray, with or without symptoms2.5 (1.4 to 3.5)0.1 (0.02 to 0.9)0.4 (0.1 to 1.3)
Eye diseaseScleritis and/or episcleritis, confirmed by an ophthalmologist2.5 (1.1 to 3.9)1.5 (0.7 to 3.0)
Rheumatoid vasculitisPresence in a patient with RA of one or more of the following:
  1. Mononeuritis multiplex or acute peripheral neuropathy

  2. Peripheral gangrene

  3. Histological evidence of necrotising arteritis associated with systemic manifestations

  4. Deep cutaneous ulcers or activeextra-articular disease (pleuritis, pericarditis, scleritis) if associated with typical digital infarctions or histological evidence of vasculitis

1.3 (0.5 to 2.1)0.4 (0.10 to 1.5)
Secondary clinical amyloidosisAmyloid deposition confirmed by biopsy in a target organ or by fine needle aspiration of subcutaneous abdominal fat plus clinical and/or analytical repercussion0.6 (0.1 to 1.2)0.3 (0.4 to 11.8
Felty’s syndromeNeutropenia (<1.8×109 neutrophils/l) plus splenomegaly (documented by ultrasound) without another cause in a patient with RA0.3 (<0.6)