Table 2

Comparison among countries of the annual healthcare resource use and annual out of pocket costs per patient

Annual healthcare resource use per patient; mean [median]Annual costs in €/pt/yr; mean [median] (% of health and non-healthcare costs)
Resource categoriesThe Netherlands
(n=130)
France
(n=53)
Belgium
(n=26)
The NetherlandsFranceBelgiumAll countries
*Bootstrapped difference between the Netherlands and France statistically significant; †bootstrapped difference between the Netherlands and Belgium statistically significant; ‡bootstrapped difference between France and Belgium statistically significant; §Difference in resource use among countries significant (p<0.05) in multivariate regression analysis after adjusting for baseline confounders; ¶Includes the annual out of pocket payment for the first €45.45, independent of the type of healthcare resource; CI, bootstrapped 95% confidence interval.
General practitioner*†‡§1.4 [0.5] visits2.2 [1.0] visits4.0 [1.1] visits0 [0] (0)1.5 [0] (0.6)17 [5] (4.5)3 [0] (0.7)
Rheumatologist*†‡§1.7 [1] visits1.6 [0.5] visits2.6 [2.4] visits0 [0] (0)2 [0] (0.8)23 [21] (6)3 [0] (0.7)
All specialists*†‡§2.6 [1.5] visits2.6 [1.0] visits3.3 [2.7] visits0 [0] (0)4 [0] (1.6)27 [21] (7)5 [0] (1)
Physiotherapist*†‡§18.3 [6.5] visits17.4 [4.4] visits26.6 [14.3] visits0 [0] (0)17 [0] (6.7)102 [55]17 [0] (4)
Spa therapy†‡0.008 [0] treatments0.04 [0] treatments4 [0] (0.8)23 [0] (9)0 [0] (0)8 [0] (2)
All physical therapy*†‡§4 [0] (0.8)40 [0] (16)102 [55] (26)25 [0] (6)
Other care providers†0.4 [0] visits0.6 [0] visits6.9 [0] visits0 [0] (0)1 [0] ((0.5)1 [0] (0.5)0.3 [0] (0.1)
Drugs*†‡§1.2 [1] kind of drugs2.0 [2] kind of drugs1.4 [1] kind of drugs0 [0] (0)25 [0] (10)72 [61] (18)15 [0] (3)
Technical procedures*†‡§4.5 [2.7] examinations4.1 [2.5] examinations4.6 [5.6] examinations0 [0] (0)8 [0] (3)46 [33.78] (12)8 [0] (2)
Inpatient care§2.6 [0] days2.7 [0] days0.3 [0] days6 [0] (1.2)3 [0] (1)4 [0] (1)1 [0] (0.5)
Aids and adaptations†‡§0.3 aids0.1 aids0.02 aids48 [0] (9)18 [0] (7)0 [0] (0)34 [0] (9)
Formal help17.1 [0] hours3.9 [0] hours8.0 [0] hours36 [0] (7)8 [0] (3)28 [0] (7)28 [0] (7)
Patient’s healthcare costs†‡ 142 [50] (28%)¶ 110 [0] (44%) 296 [224] (75%) 153 [0] (35%)
Swim and exercise group*†‡§15.6 [4.8] sessions6.17 [1.0] sessions5.36 [0.8] sessions51 [54] (10)14 [2] (6)6 [2] (1.5)36 [6.5] (8)
Contributions*†§8 [0] (2)1 [0] (0.5)0 [0] (0)5 [0] (1)
Private help†‡§22.6 [0] hours5.9 [0] hours0.00 [0] hours249 [0] (49)60 [0] (24)0 [0] (0)170 [0] (39)
Transport527.9 [174.59] km451.5 [96.0] km776.9 [406.6] km61 [24] (12)67 [26] (27)92 [52] (23)66 [0] (15)
Patient’s non-healthcare costs*† 369 [115] (72%) 142 [47] (56%) 98 [54] (25%) 278 [77] (65%)
Patient’s health- and non-healthcare costs* 510 [181] (100%) 252 [109] (100%) 394 [265] (100%) 431 [172] (100%)
[95% CI 364 to 689] [95% CI 136 to 417] [95% CI 269 to 551] [95% CI 331 to 551]
Patient’s income loss†43%45%42%1663 [0]1034 [0]595 [0]1371 [0]
Total patient’s cost†* 2172 [1697] 1286 [197] 988 [303] 1795 [351]
[95% CI 1781 to 2557] [95% CI 664 to 2048] [95% CI 459 to 1640] [95% CI 1490 to 2121]