Table 3

Comparison among countries of the annual healthcare resource use and annual societal costs per patient

Annual health resource use per patient; mean [median]Annual costs in € per patient; mean [median] (% of total)
Resource categoriesThe Netherlands (n=130)France (n=53)Belgium (n=26)The NetherlandsFranceBelgium
*Bootstrapped difference between the Netherlands and France statistically significant;
†bootstrapped difference between the Netherlands and Belgium statistically significant;
‡bootstrapped difference between France and Belgium statistically significant;
§includes costs of spa therapy for one Dutch patient and two French patients;
¶includes admissions to hospital, attendance at emergency department and (day care) admissions to rehabilitation day clinic;
**confidence interval (CI) assessed by 95% method of 10 000 bootstrapped replications.
General practitioner†1.4 [0.5] visits2.2 [1.0] visits4.0 [1.1] visits23 [42] (0.8%)36 [51] (1.5%)66 [106] (4%)
All specialists2.6 [1.5] visits2.6 [1.0] visits3.3 [2.7] visits181 [105] (6.4%)181 [70] (7%)219[189] (12%)
Rheumatologist†1.7 [1] visits1.6 [0.5] visits2.6 [2.4] visits118 [76] (4%)114 [34] (4%)184 [168] (10%)
Physiotherapist§18.3 [6.5] visits17.4 [4.4] visits26.6 [14.3] visits330 [116] (12%)338 [85] (13%)472 [254] (26%)
Other care providers†‡0.4 [0] visits0.6 [0] visits0.1 [0] visits22 [0] (0.8%)28 [0] (1%)3 [0] (0.2%)
Drugs*‡1.2 [1] kind of drugs2.0 [2] kind of drugs1.4 [1] kind of drugs282 [151] (10%)465 [371] (18%)306 [229] (17%)
Technical procedures4.5 [2.7] examinations4.1 [2.5] examinations4.6 [5.6] examinations204 [45] (7%)152 [53] (6%)278 [114] (16%)
Inpatient care¶†2.6 [0] days2.7 [0] days0.3 [0] days800 [0] (28%)759 [0] (30%)85 [0] (4.7%)
Aids and adaptations*†0.3 aids0.1 aids0.02 aids199 [0] (7%)37 [0] (1%)4 [0] (0.2%)
Formal home care17.1 [0] hours3.9 [0] hours8.0 [0] hours295 [0] (10%)68 [0] (3%)218 [0] (12%)
All healthcare costs (€) 2335 [1025] (82%) 2064 [983] (80%) 1572 [1122] (88%)
(CI 1774 to 2962)**(CI 1120 to 3405)**(CI 1084 to 2200)**
Swim and exercise group16 [4.8] sessions6 [1] sessions5 [0.75] sessions
Contributions*†‡51 [0] (2%)14 [0] (0.5%)6.0 [0] (0.3%)
Informal household care46 [0] hours54 [0] hours14 [0] hours369 [0] (13%)429 [0] (17%)111.0 [0] (6%)
Transportation528 [175] km451 [96] km777 [407] km74 [31] (7%)62 [24] (2%)101 [57] (6%)
All non-healthcare costs† (€) 502 [131] (18%) 506 [62] (20%) 218 [63] (12%)
(CI 314 to 760)**(CI 101 to 1187)**(CI 72 to 405)**
Total direct costs† (€) 2837 [1267] (100%) 2570 [1078] (100%) 1790 [1161] (100%)
(CI 2200 to 3506)**(CI 1262 to 4415)**(CI 1140 to 2572)**