Table 2

Risk of regional musculoskeletal pain according to smoking status

Site
NeckShoulder(s)Elbow(s)Hand(s)Hip(s)KneesLow back
n*%PR (95% CI)%PR (95% CI)%PR (95% CI)%PR (95% CI)%PR (95% CI)%PR (95% CI)%PR (95% CI)
*Number included in the analysis of neck pain. Numbers in the other analyses varied slightly according to the completeness of the responses on pain.
All PRs were adjusted for age, sex, and complaints of frequent headaches, tiredness, or stress. They were also adjusted for reported occupational activities (exposure to hand transmitted and whole body vibration in the past week; and reports in an average working day of: lifting weights >10 kg by hand, work with hands above shoulder height for >1 h, and use of a keyboard for >4 h).
Pain in the past year:
    Never smoked6063321.0291.0111.0221.0151.0301.0441.0
    Formerly smoked3144381.1 (1.1 to 1.2)371.2 (1.1 to 1.2)181.3 (1.2 to 1.5)291.2 (1.1 to 1.3)211.2 (1.1 to 1.3)371.1 (1.1 to 1.2)551.2 (1.1 to 1.2)
    Currently smoke2982391.1 (1.1 to 1.2)401.2 (1.2 to 1.3)151.2 (1.1 to 1.4)311.3 (1.2 to 1.4)211.3 (1.2 to 1.4)371.1 (1.0 to 1.2)561.2 (1.1 to 1.2)
Pain in the past year preventing activity:
    Never smoked602291.091.041.081.061.0111.0251.0
    Formerly smoked3121121.2 (1.1 to 1.4)141.3 (1.1 to 1.4)71.4 (1.2 to 1.7)121.3 (1.1 to 1.5)81.1 (0.9 to 1.3)131.0 (0.9 to 1.2)381.3 (1.2 to 1.3)
    Currently smoke2951161.5 (1.3 to 1.6)171.5 (1.4 to 1.7)71.6 (1.3 to 1.9)131.4 (1.2 to 1.6)101.4 (1.2 to 1.7)151.2 (1.0 to 1.3)371.3 (1.2 to 1.4)