Table 1

Anthropometric data, postural sway, proprioceptive acuity (degrees), MVC1-150 (kgf), quadriceps activation for the controls and patients. The data are presented as means and 95% CI unless otherwise stated

ControlsPatientsMean difference
(95% CI of difference)
p Value
No (%)Mean (95% CI)No (%)Mean (95% CI)
Anthropometric data
 Male18 (29)19 (25)
 Female45 (71)58 (75)
 Total6377
 Age (years)63 (60.1 to 65.5)63.4 (61.0 to 65.7−0.61 (−4.2 to 3.0)0.47
 Height (m)1.66 (1.64 to 1.68)1.65 (1.63 to 1.67)0.87 (−1.95 to 3.70)0.45
 Weight (kg)68.7 (66.3 to 71.1)83.4 (79.6 to 87.10)−15.34 (−20.6 to −10.10)<0.001
Postural sway (median, IQ range)
 Lateral2.3 (1.8–2.9)4.7 (1.9–4.7)<0.001
 Anteroposterior (right)3.3 (2.3–5.2)4.4 (3.4–6.0)<0.001
 Anteroposterior (left)3.3 (2.2–4.2)4.4 (3.1–6.4)<0.001
Proprioceptive acuity547.9 (6.9 to 8.9)6612.0 (10.5 to 13.6)−4.1 (−6.1 to −2.2)<0.001
MVC (kgf)4922.5 (19.9 to 24.61)5914.7 (12.54 to 16.86)7.5 (4.40 to 10.72)<0.001
Quadriceps activation (%)4787.40 (80.7 to 94.20)5766.0 (58.80 to 73.20)21.4 (11.51 to 31.34)<0.001
MVC/weight470.32 (0.30 to 0.36)570.18 (0.15 to 0.21)0.15 (0.10 to 0.20)<0.001
  • 1-150 MVC = maximal voluntary quadriceps.