Table 1

Pain ratings (VAS, 0 = no pain, 10 = extremely painful) in patients with leech treatment and in controls; mean score and 95% confidence interval ( x± 1.96 SEM)

Baseline Day 3 Day 4 Day 6 Day 10 Day 28
Leeches (n=10)7.4 (6.3 to 8.5)7.2 (6.2 to 8.2)4.1 (2.8 to 5.4)2.4 (1.2 to 3.6)1-150 1.3 (0.5 to 2.8)1-150 1.0 (0.5 to 1.5)1-150
Controls (n=6)6.3 (4.8 to 7.8)5.8 (4.3 to 7.4)5.8 (4.4 to 7.3)5.2 (3.6 to 6.7)5.2 (3.8 to 6.5)4.8 (3.8 to 5.9)
  • Days 1–3: Pretreatment observation period. First rating after leeches treatment on day 4. Further ratings at days 6, 10, and 28.

  • 1-150 p<0.05 between group differences.