Table 2

Association of knee pain with anxiety, depression, voluntary quadriceps strength (MVC), quadriceps activation, and radiographic score. Odds ratios have been calculated using logistic regression and are adjusted for age, sex, and BMI in addition to the variables shown. For bilateral variables, the worst value from either limb has been used in analysis

Knee painOdds ratio95% Confidence intervals
yes (%)no (%)
Anxiety
HAD score <889 (48.4)95 (51.6)1
 HAD score ⩾889 (65.0)48 (35.0)1.430.85, 2.40
Depression
HAD score <8139 (47.1)156 (52.9)1 2-150
 HAD score ⩾890 (61.2)57 (38.8)2.361.01, 5.54
MVC (kgF)
>408 (15.7)43 (84.3)1 2-150
 30–4052 (37.4)87 (62.6)1.490.56, 3.96
 20–3084 (55.3)68 (44.7)3.171.22, 8.26
 10–2044 (68.7)21 (31.3)7.102.43, 20.68
 ⩽1025 (69.4)11 (30.6)18.834.79, 74.08
Activation (%)
>10037 (27.0)100 (73.0)1 2-150
 91–10082 (51.3)78 (48.8)1.740.80, 3.77
 71–9047 (60.3)31 (39.7)1.660.83, 3.32
 ⩽7047 (70.1)20 (29.9)2.271.01, 5.08
Radiographic score
029 (45.3)35 (54.7)1 2-150
 134 (37.4)57 (62.6)0.770.36, 1.65
 2–356 (43.1)74 (56.9)1.260.62, 2.54
 ⩾4110 (70.1)47 (29.9)4.071.93, 8.61
  • 2-150 Denotes a significant trend test (p<0.05).