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Consensus statement on blocking interleukin-6 receptor and interleukin-6 in inflammatory conditions: an update
  1. Daniel Aletaha1,
  2. Andreas Kerschbaumer1,
  3. Kastriot Kastrati1,
  4. Christian Dejaco2,3,
  5. Maxime Dougados4,
  6. Iain B McInnes5,
  7. Naveed Sattar6,
  8. Tanja A Stamm7,
  9. Tsutomu Takeuchi8,
  10. Michael Trauner9,
  11. Désirée van der Heijde10,11,
  12. Marieke Voshaar12,
  13. Kevin L Winthrop13,
  14. Angelo Ravelli14,
  15. Neil Betteridge15,
  16. Gerd-Rüdiger R Burmester16,
  17. Johannes WJ Bijlsma17,
  18. Vivian Bykerk18,
  19. Roberto Caporali19,
  20. Ernest H Choy20,
  21. Catalin Codreanu21,
  22. Bernard Combe22,
  23. Mary K Crow23,
  24. Maarten de Wit24,
  25. Paul Emery25,26,
  26. Roy M Fleischmann27,
  27. Cem Gabay28,
  28. Merete Lund Hetland29,30,
  29. Kimme L Hyrich31,
  30. Annamaria Iagnocco32,
  31. John D Isaacs33,
  32. Joel M Kremer34,
  33. Xavier Mariette35,36,
  34. Peter A Merkel37,
  35. Eduardo F Mysler38,
  36. Peter Nash39,
  37. Michael T Nurmohamed40,
  38. Karel Pavelka41,
  39. Gyula Poor42,
  40. Andrea Rubbert-Roth43,
  41. Hendrik Schulze-Koops44,
  42. Anja Strangfeld45,
  43. Yoshiya Tanaka46,
  44. Josef S Smolen1
  1. 1Division of Rheumatology, Medical University of Vienna, Wien, Austria
  2. 2Rheumatology, Medical University of Graz, Graz, Austria
  3. 3Rheumatology, Brunico Hospital, Brunico, Italy
  4. 4Rheumatology, Universite Paris Descartes Faculte de Medecine Site Cochin, Paris, France
  5. 5Institute of Infection, Immunity and Inflammation, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UK
  6. 6Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, British Heart Foundation Glasgow Cardiovascular Research Centre, Glasgow, UK
  7. 7Section for Outcomes Research, Medical University of Vienna, Wien, Austria
  8. 8Division of Rheumatology, Department of Internal Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine Graduate School of Medicine, Shinjuku-ku, Japan
  9. 9Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Medical University of Vienna, Wien, Austria
  10. 10Rheumatology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands
  11. 11Rheumatology, Diakonhjemmet Hospital, Oslo, Norway
  12. 12Department of Psychology, Health and Technology, Enschede, Netherlands and Stichting Tools Patient Empowerment, University of Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands
  13. 13Schools of Medicine and Public Health, Division of Infectious Diseases, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, Oregon, USA
  14. 14UO Pediatria II—Reumatologia, Istituto Giannina Gaslini, Genova, Italy
  15. 15Neil Betteridge Associates Limited, London, UK
  16. 16Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, Charite University Hospital Berlin, Berlin, Germany
  17. 17Department of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands
  18. 18Rheumatology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada
  19. 19Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, ASS G. Pini, University of Milan, Milano, Italy
  20. 20CREATE Centre, Section of Rheumatology, School of Medicine, Division of Infection and Immunity, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK
  21. 21Rheumatology, Carol Davila University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Bucuresti, Romania
  22. 22Immunorhumatologie, CHU Lapeyronie, Montpellier, France
  23. 23Mary Kirkland Center for Lupus Research, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York City, New York, USA
  24. 24Medical Humanities, Amsterdam University Medical Centres, Duivendrecht, The Netherlands
  25. 25University of Leeds, Leeds Institute of Rheumatic and Musculoskeletal Medicine, Leeds, UK
  26. 26Leeds Teaching Hospitals NHS Trust, NIHR Leeds Musculoskeletal Biomedical Research Unit, Leeds, UK
  27. 27Medicine, The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, USA
  28. 28Division of Rheumatology, Geneva University Hospitals, Geneve, Switzerland
  29. 29Department of Clinical Medicine, Copenhagen University Hospital, Kobenhavn, Denmark
  30. 30Department of Clinical Medicine, University of Copenhagen, Kobenhavn, Denmark
  31. 31Centre for Epidemiology Versus Arthritis, The University of Manchester, Manchester Academic Health Science Centre, Manchester, UK
  32. 32Scienze Cliniche e Biologiche, Università degli Studi di Torino, Torino, Italy
  33. 33Translational and Clinical Research Institute, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK
  34. 34Medicine Rheumatology, Albany Medical College, Albany, New York, USA
  35. 35Rheumatology, Assistance Publique—Hôpitaux de Paris, Paris, France
  36. 36Center for Immunology of Viral Infections and Auto-immune Diseases, Université Paris-Sud, Gif-sur-Yvette, France
  37. 37Rheumatology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA
  38. 38Organización Médica de Investigación SA, Buenos Aires, Argentina
  39. 39Griffith University School of Medicine, Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia
  40. 40Rheumatology, Amsterdam UMC Locatie VUmc, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
  41. 41Rheumatology Department, Charles University, Praha, Czech Republic
  42. 42National Institute of Rheumatology & Physiology, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary
  43. 43Division of Rheumatology, Kantonsspital Sankt Gallen, Sankt Gallen, Switzerland
  44. 44Division of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, Internal Medicine IV, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitat Munchen, Munchen, Germany
  45. 45Forschungsbereich Epidemiologie, Deutsches Rheuma-Forschungszentrum Berlin, Berlin, Germany
  46. 46First Department of Internal Medicine, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Kitakyushu, Japan
  1. Correspondence to Professor Daniel Aletaha, Division of Rheumatology, Medical University of Vienna, Wien 1090, Austria; daniel.aletaha{at}meduniwien.ac.at

Abstract

Background Targeting interleukin (IL)-6 has become a major therapeutic strategy in the treatment of immune-mediated inflammatory disease. Interference with the IL-6 pathway can be directed at the specific receptor using anti-IL-6Rα antibodies or by directly inhibiting the IL-6 cytokine. This paper is an update of a previous consensus document, based on most recent evidence and expert opinion, that aims to inform on the medical use of interfering with the IL-6 pathway.

Methods A systematic literature research was performed that focused on IL-6-pathway inhibitors in inflammatory diseases. Evidence was put in context by a large group of international experts and patients in a subsequent consensus process. All were involved in formulating the consensus statements, and in the preparation of this document.

Results The consensus process covered relevant aspects of dosing and populations for different indications of IL-6 pathway inhibitors that are approved across the world, including rheumatoid arthritis, polyarticular-course and systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis, giant cell arteritis, Takayasu arteritis, adult-onset Still’s disease, Castleman’s disease, chimeric antigen receptor-T-cell-induced cytokine release syndrome, neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder and severe COVID-19. Also addressed were other clinical aspects of the use of IL-6 pathway inhibitors, including pretreatment screening, safety, contraindications and monitoring.

Conclusions The document provides a comprehensive consensus on the use of IL-6 inhibition to treat inflammatory disorders to inform healthcare professionals (including researchers), patients, administrators and payers.

  • rheumatoid arthritis
  • biological therapy
  • autoimmune diseases

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Footnotes

  • Handling editor Dimitrios T Boumpas

  • Twitter @Neil_Betteridge, @ProfJohnIsaacs

  • Correction notice This article has been corrected since it published Online First. The author's name, Peter A Merkel, has been updated.

  • Contributors All authors contributed to the development of the search strategy, interpretation of the evidence, formulation of the consensus statements, and reviewed the manuscript. AK and KK, in addition, performed the search, rated the studies and summarised the results.

  • Funding This study was supported by Sanofi, (unrestricted grant).

  • Competing interests DA: Grants or contracts from any entity: AbbVie, Amgen, Eli Lilly, Novartis, Roche, SoBi and Sanofi; Consulting fees: AbbVie, Amgen, Eli Lilly, Janssen, Merck, Novartis, Pfizer, Roche and Sandoz; Support for attending meetings and/or travel: AbbVie, Gilead, Sandoz, Pfizer, BMSAK: Payment or honoraria for lectures, presentations, speakers bureaus, manuscript writing or educational events: AbbVie, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Celgene, Eli-Lilly, Gilead, Janssen, Merck Sharp and Dohme, Novartis and PfizerKK: Payment or honoraria for lectures, presentations, speakers bureaus, manuscript writing or educational events: Boehringer Ingelheim, UCB Pharma and AbbVie; Support for attending meetings and/or travel: AbbVie, Gilead, Sandoz, Pfizer and BMSJI: Grants or contracts from any entity: Pfizer, GSK and Janssen; Consulting fees: AbbVie, Gilead and BMS; Payment or honoraria for lectures, presentations, speaker bureaus, manuscript writing or educational events: AbbVie, Gilead and Roche; Support for attending meetings and/or travel: Eli Lilly and Gilead; Participation on a Data Safety Monitoring Board or Advisory Board: Eli Lilly; Leadership or fiduciary role in other board, society, committee or advocacy group: Versus Arthritis Board member (unpaid) NS: Grants or contracts from any entity: AstraZeneca, Boehringer Ingelheim, Novartis and Roche Diagnostics; Consulting fees: Afimmune, Amgen, AstraZeneca, Boehringer Ingelheim, Eli Lilly, Hanmi Pharmaceuticals, MSD, Novartis, Novo Nordisk, Pfizer and SanofiMV: Grants or contracts from any entity: PfizerBC: Grants or contracts from any entity: Pfizer, Roche, Chugai and Novartis; Consulting fees: AbbVie, Celltrion, Janssen, Gilead-Galapagos, Eli Lilly, Novartis, Roche-Chugai; Payment or honoraria for lectures, presentations, speakers bureaus, manuscript writing or educational events: AbbVie, BMS, Celltrion, Gilead-Galapagos, Janssen, Eli Lilly, Merck, Pfizer and Roche-ChugaiNB: All support for the present manuscript: Vienna Medical Academy; Consulting fees: Amgen, EULAR, Galapagos, Global Alliance for Patient Access, Grunenthal, Eli Lilly, Pfizer and Sanofi; Support for attending meetings and/or travel: EULAR and Global Alliance for Patient Access; Receipt of equipment, materials, drugs, medical writing, gifts or other services: GalapagosJB: Payment or honoraria for lectures, presentations, speakers bureaus, manuscript writing or educational events: Eli Lilly and Galapagos; Participation on a Data Safety Monitoring Board or Advisory Board: SyneosGRB: All support for the present manuscript: Sanofi; Consulting fees: AbbVie, Galapagos, Lilly, Pfizer, Roche and Sanofi; Payment or honoraria for lectures, presentations, speakers bureaus, manuscript writing or educational events: AbbVie, Galapagos, Lilly, Pfizer, Roche and SanofiVPB: Grants or contracts from any entity: NIH (NIAID/NIAMS), The Cedar Hill Foundation, Amgen and BMS; Consulting fees: Amgen, BMS, Genzyme, Gilead, Janssen, Pfizer and Sanofi-Aventis; Participation on a Data Safety Monitoring Board or Advisory Board: KAI for NIHRC: noneEC: Grants or contracts from any entity: Bio-Cancer, Biogen, Novartis, Pfizer and Sanofi; Consulting fees: AbbVie, Amgen, BMS, Biocon, Eli Lilly, Galapagos, Chugai Pharma, Janssen, Novartis, Pfizer, Regeneron, Roche, Sanofi and RPharm; Payment or honoraria for lectures, presentations, speakers bureaus, manuscript writing or educational events: AbbVie, Amgen, BMS, Chugai Pharma, Eli Lilly, Galapagos, Gilead, Janssen, Novartis, Pfizer, Regeneron, Roche, RPharm and Sanofi; Support for attending meetings and/or travel: Gilead, Galapagos, AbbVie and Eli LillyMT: Grants or contracts from any entity: Albireo, Cymabay, Falk, Gilead, Intercept, MSD, Takeda, Alnylam and Ultragenyx; Consulting fees: Albireo, BioMX, Boehringer Ingelheim, Falk, Genfit, Intercept, Janssen, MSD, Gilead, Novartis, Shire, Phenex and Regulus; Payment or honoraria for lectures, presentations, speakers bureaus, manuscript writing or educational events: Falk Foundation, Gilead, Intercept and MSD; Support for attending meetings and/or travel: AbbVie, Falk, Gilead and Intercept; Patents planned, issued or pending: Co-Inventor patent on medical use of nor-UDCATS: Grants or contracts from any entity: AbbVie and Roche; Payment or honoraria for lectures, presentations, speakers bureaus, manuscript writing or educational events: AbbVie, Roche, Sanofi, Takeda and NovartisCC: Grants or contracts from any entity: AbbVie, Boehringer Ingelheim, Ewopharma, Lilly, Novartis and Pfizer; Consulting fees: AbbVie, Amgen, Boehringer Ingelheim, Ewopharma, Lilly, Novartis and Pfizer; Payment or honoraria for lectures, presentations, speakers bureaus, manuscript writing or educational events: AbbVie, Amgen, Boehringer Ingelheim, Ewopharma, Lilly, Novartis and Pfizer; Participation on a Data Safety Monitoring Board or Advisory Board: AbbVie, Amgen, Boehringer Ingelheim, Ewopharma and Pfizer; Leadership or fiduciary role in other board, society, committee or advocacy group: Romanian Society of Rheumatology, Romanian Registry of Rheumatic Diseases and Romanian League against RheumatismMKC: Grants or contracts from any entity: Gilead; Consulting fees: AstraZeneca, BMS, GSK and Shannon Pharmaceuticals; Payment or honoraria for lectures, presentations, speakers bureaus, manuscript writing or educational events: AstraZeneca and Gilead; Leadership or fiduciary role in other board, society, committee or advocacy group: Arthritis Foundation, New York Chapter; Stock or stock options: Johnson and Johnson, Regeneron and AmgenMD: All support for the present manuscript: Medical academy of Vienna; Grants or contracts from any entity: Roche, Sanofi, Pfizer, AbbVie, Eli Lilly, BMS, Merck, Galapagos and UCB; Consulting fees: Roche, Sanofi, Pfizer, AbbVie, Eli Lilly, BMS, Merck, Galapagos and UCB; Payment or honoraria for lectures, presentations, speakers bureaus, manuscript writing or educational events: Roche, Sanofi, Pfizer, AbbVie, Eli Lilly, BMS, Merck, Galapagos and UCBGP: none. DvdH: Consulting fees: AbbVie, Bayer, BMS, Cyxone, Eisai, Galapagos, Gilead, Glaxo-Smith-Kline, Janssen, Lilly, Novartis, Pfizer and UCB Pharma; Other financial or non-financial interests: Director of Imaging Rheumatology bv.PE: Grants or contracts from any entity: Abbvie, BMS, Lilly, Novartis, Pfizer, Roche and Samsung; Consulting fees: Abbvie, Astra-Zeneca, Boehringer Ingelheim, Galapagos, Gilead, Eli Lilly and Novartis; Payment or honoraria for lectures, presentations, speakers bureaus, manuscript writing or educational events: Abbvie, BMS, GSK, Eli Lilly and NovartisEM: All support for the present manuscript: University of Vienna funding; Grants or contracts from any entity: Roche, Jansen, Pfizer, AbbVie and Novartis; Consulting fees: GSK, Roche, Novartis, AbbVie, Pfizer, Janssen, Eli Lilly and AstraZeneca; Payment or honoraria for lectures, presentations, speakers bureaus, manuscript writing or educational events: GSK, Pfizer, AbbVie, Lilly, Amgen, Janssen and AstraZeneca; Participation on a Data Safety Monitoring Board or Advisory Board: GSKRF: Consulting fees: AbbVie, Amgen, BMS, GSK, Gilead, Pfizer, Novartis and Eli Lilly; Payment or honoraria for lectures, presentations, speakers bureaus, manuscript writing or educational events: AbbVie and Pfizer; Participation on a Data Safety Monitoring Board or Advisory Board: AbbVie, Pfizer, Eli Lilly and GSKCG: noneKH: Grants or contracts from any entity: Pfizer and BMS; Payment or honoraria for lectures, presentations, speakers bureaus, manuscript writing or educational events: AbbViePAM: Grants or contracts from any entity: AbbVie, AstraZeneca, Boeringher-Ingelheim, Bristol-Myers Squibb, ChemoCentryx, Eicos, Forbius, Genentech/Roche, Genzyme/Sanofi, GlaxoSmithKline, InflaRx, Sanofi and Takeda; Royalties or licenses: UpToDate; Consulting fees: AbbVie, AstraZeneca, Boeringher-Ingelheim, Bristol-Myers Squibb, ChemoCentryx, CSL Behring, Dynacure, EMDSerono, Forbius, Genentech/Roche, Genzyme/Sanofi, GlaxoSmithKline, Immagene, InflaRx, Jannsen, Kiniksa, Kyverna, Magenta, MiroBio, Mitsubishi, Neutrolis, Novartis, Pfizer, Regeneron, Sparrow, Takeda and TalarisTT: Grants or contracts from any entity: Chugai Pharmaceutical; Consulting fees: Chugai, Janssen and Rpharma; Payment or honoraria for lectures, presentations, speakers bureaus, manuscript writing or educational events: Chugai, BMS, Janssen and SanofiXM: Consulting fees: BMS, Novartis, Galapagos, Sanofi, GSK, Pfizer, Janssen and UCBKW: Grants or contracts from any entity: BMS and Pfizer; Consulting fees: AbbVie, BMS, Eli Lily, Galapagos, Gilead, Pfizer, Roche, UCB, GSK, Novartis, AstraZeneca, Regeneron and SanofiMdW: Payment or honoraria for lectures, presentations, speakers bureaus, manuscript writing or educational events: Pfizer, Celgene, Eli Lilly and UCBKP: Payments for lectures: Roche, AbbVie, Pfizer, Eli Lilly, Amgen, SOBI, UCB and MSD; Advisory Board: Roche, AbbVie, Pfizer, Eli Lilly, Amgen, SOBI, UCB and MSDPN: Grants or contracts from any entity: Roche, Abbvie, Pfizer, Janssen, Gilead/Galapagos, BMS, Novartis and Eli Lilly; Consulting fees: Abbvie, Pfizer, janssen, BMS, Novartis, Lilly, Roche and Gilead/Galapagos; Payment or honoraria for lectures, presentations, speakers bureaus, manuscript writing or educational events: Abbvie, Pfizer, janssen, BMS, Novartis, Lilly, Roche and Gilead/GalapagosYT: Grants or contracts from any entity: Asahi-Kasei, Abbvie, Chugai, Mitsubishi-Tanabe, Eisai, Takeda, Corrona, Daiichi-Sankyo, Kowa and Behringer-Ingelheim; Consulting fees: Eli Lilly, Daiichi-Sankyo, Taisho, Ayumi, Sanofi, GSK and Abbvie; Payment or honoraria for lectures, presentations, speakers bureaus, manuscript writing or educational events: Gilead, AbbVie, Boehringer-Ingelheim, Eli Lilly, Mitsubishi-Tanabe, Chugai, Amgen, YL Biologics, Eisai, Astellas, Bristol-Myers and AstraZenecaCD: Grants or contracts from any entity: FWF Austria and Celgene; Consulting fees: AbbVie, MSD, Pfizer, Roche, Sanofi, Janssen, Novartis, Eli Lilly and Galapagos; Payment or honoraria for lectures, presentations, speakers bureaus, manuscript writing or educational events: AbbVie, MSD, Pfizer, Roche, Sanofi, Janssen, Novartis, Eli Lilly and Galapagos; Support for attending meetings and/or travel: AbbVie, MSD, Pfizer, Roche, Sanofi, Janssen, Novartis, Eli Lilly and Galapagos; Receipt of equipment, materials, drugs, medical writing, gifts or other services: MSDMLH: Grants or contracts from any entity: Novartis, Roche and Sandoz; Consulting fees: BMS and Samsung Bioepis; Payment or honoraria for lectures, presentations, speakers bureaus, manuscript writing or educational events: MSD, AbbVie, Novartis, Merck, Eli Lilly, Medac and Sandoz; Support for attending meetings and/or travel: The DANBIO registry; Participation on a Data Safety Monitoring Board or Advisory Board: CellTrion and Eli Lilly; Leadership or fiduciary role in other board, society, committee or advocacy group: Chair of the DANBIO steering committee, Member of the Danish Rheumatism Association’s Board, Member of the Danish Rheumatism Association’s research council, Member of EULAR Quality of Care Committee, Co-chair of the EuroSpA collaboration; Receipt of equipment, materials, drugs, medical writing, gifts or other services: Study drug for the NORD-STAR study/ Abatacept and Certolizumab pegolHSK: Consulting fees: Roche, Chugai and Sanofi-Aventis; Payment or honoraria for lectures, presentations, speakers bureaus, manuscript writing or educational events: Roche, Chugai and Sanofi-Aventis; Participation on a Data Safety Monitoring Board or Advisory Board: Roche, Chugai and Sanofi-AventisMN: Grants or contracts from any entity: Pfizer, Amgen, Galapagos and AbbVie; Consulting fees: AbbVie; Payment or honoraria for lectures, presentations, speakers bureaus, manuscript writing or educational events: Celgene and AbbVie; Participation on a Data Safety Monitoring Board or Advisory Board: AbbVieAS: Grants or contracts from any entity: oint, unconditional grant from AbbVie, Amgen, BMS, Celltrion, Fresenius Kabi, Hexal, Lilly, MSD, Viatris, Pfizer, Roche, Samsung Bioepis, Sanofi-Aventis and UCB; Payment or honoraria for lectures, presentations, speakers bureaus, manuscript writing or educational events: AbbVie, Amgen, BMS, Celltrion, Janssen, Lilly, Pfizer, Roche, Sanofi and UCBAL: Payment or honoraria for lectures, presentations, speakers bureaus, manuscript writing or educational events: AbbVie, MSD, Alfasigma, Celltrion, BMS, Celgene, Eli-Lilly, Sanofi Genzyme, Pfizer, Galapagos, Gilead, Novartis and SOBIAR: Payment or honoraria for lectures, presentations, speakers bureaus, manuscript writing or educational events: AbbVie, Angelini, Pfizer, Novartis, Reckitt Benckiser and SOBI; Leadership or fiduciary role in other board, society, committee or advocacy group: President, Pediatric Rheumatology European Society (PReS)ARR: Consulting fees: Sanofi, Roche, AbbVie, Eli Lilly, Gilead, BMS and Novartis; Payment or honoraria for lectures, presentations, speakers bureaus, manuscript writing or educational events: AbbVie, Pfizer, Sanofi, UCB, BMS, Gilead, Roche, Novartis and Janssen; Payment for expert testimony: AbbVie, Novartis and Gilead; Support for attending meetings and/or travel: AbbVie and Sanofi; Participation on a Data Safety Monitoring Board or Advisory Board: RPharmIM: Grants or contracts from any entity: AbbVie, BMS, Eli Lilly, Janssen, Pfizer, UCB, Amgen and Novartis; Consulting fees: AbbVie, BMS, Eli Lilly, Janssen, Pfizer, Sanofi, Novartis, Gilead, Amgen, UCB, GSK and Moonlake; Payment or honoraria for lectures, presentations, speakers bureaus, manuscript writing or educational events: AbbVie; Leadership or fiduciary role in other board, society, committee or advocacy group: Vice Principal & Head of MVLS College/University of Glasgow, Board Member/ NHS Greater Glasgow & Clyde and Evelo; Stock or stock options: Causeway Therapeutics, Compugen, Cabaletta and EveloBio; JS: grants to his institution from Abbvie, Astro, AstraZeneca, Janssen, Lilly, Merck Sharpe & Dohme, Pfizer, and Roche; Expert advice for, or had symposia speaking engagements with, AbbVie, Amgen, AstraZeneca, Astro, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Celgene, Celltrion, Chugai, Gilead, ILTOO Pharma, Janssen, Lilly, Merck Sharp & Dohme, Novartis-Sandoz, Pfizer, R-Pharm, Roche, Samsung, Sanofi and UCB.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.