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We read with great interest the article by Müller-Calleja et al1 in which a novel mechanism of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) was discovered, which might explain well-established anti-inflammatory effects of antimalarials.2–4 HCQ and chloroquine (CQ), both known as antimalarial drugs, have become fundamental therapeutic elements in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in these decades. However, their specific benefits on organ involvement and long-term outcome remain to be elucidated.
To examine the role of antimalarials in different clinical aspects of Chinese patients with SLE, we retrieved the medical records of 1372 patients with SLE who experienced their first hospitalisation at 26 centres across Jiangsu, an eastern province of China, between January 1999 and December 2009 from a longitudinal SLE database collected by the Jiangsu Lupus Collaborative Group.5 Demographics of the enrolled patients are summarised in table 1. All the patients were followed up in 2015 to check for their survival status. Based on Kaplan-Meier survival analysis, the survival …
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