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Handling editor Josef S Smolen
Twitter @stezhao, @dpsg108
Contributors Both authors contributed to all stages of this research.
Funding SSZ is supported by a National Institute for Health Research Clinical Lectureship and works in centres supported by Versus Arthritis (grant numbers 21755, 21173, 21754 and 21755). DG is supported by the British Heart Foundation Research Centre of Excellence (RE/18/4/34215) at Imperial College London. This research was funded by UK Research and Innovation Medical Research Council (MC_UU_00002/7).
Competing interests DG is employed part-time by Novo Nordisk. All authors declare no conflicts of interest that could bias this work.
Patient and public involvement Patients and/or the public were not involved in the design, conduct, reporting or dissemination plans of this research.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.
Data availability UK Biobank data are available to all bona fide researchers for use in health-related research that is in the public interest. The application procedure is described at www.ukbiobank.ac.uk.
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