Background: Vaccination represents a cornerstone in mastering the COVID-19 pandemic. Data on immunogenicity, efficacy, and safety of the novel BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine in patients with autoimmune inflammatory rheumatic diseases (AIIRD) are limited.
Objectives: To investigate the immunogenicity, efficacy, and safety of the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine in patients with AIIRD compared to the general population.
Methods: A prospective multicenter study investigated immunogenicity, efficacy, and safety of the two-dose regimen BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine in adult patients with AIIRD including rheumatoid arthritis (RA), psoriatic arthritis (PsA), axial spondyloarthropathy (axSpA), systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), connective tissues diseases (CTD), systemic vasculitides, and idiopathic inflammatory myositis (IIM), compared to control subjects without rheumatic diseases or immunosuppressive therapies. Serum IgG antibody levels against SARS-CoV-2 spike S1/S2 proteins were measured 2 - 6 weeks after the second vaccine dose. Seropositivity was defined as IgG ≥15 binding antibody units (BAU)/ml. Post-vaccination efficacy defined as post-vaccination COVID-19 infection and safety were assessed. Pre- and post- vaccination disease activity indices were assessed as appropriate for each disease.
Results: A total of 686 AIIRD patients and 121 controls participated into the study. AIIRD patients were significantly older than controls, mean age±SD 56.76±14.88 vs 50.76±14.68, respectively, p<0.0001. A total of 95.2% (n=653) AIIRD patients were treated with immunomodulatory medications.
The seropositivity rate was 86% (n=590) in patients with AIIRD compared to 100% in controls (p <0.0001) The level of the S1/S2 antibodies was significantly reduced in AIIRD patients compared to controls (mean± SD 132.9±91.7 vs 218.6±82.06, P<0.0001). In patients with PsA, AxSpA, SLE, and LVV, the seropositive rate was above 90%. In RA, the seropositive rate was 82.1% and the lowest seropositive rate (<40%) was observed in patients with AAV and IIM.
Anti-CD20 significantly impaired the vaccine’s immunogenicity, with the lowest seropositivity rate of 39%. The use of GC, mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), and abatacept was associated with a significantly lower rate of seropositivity (Figure 1). MTX significantly reduced the seropositivity in patients treated with MTX monotherapy and in combinations with other treatments (92% and 84%, respectively), although at a lesser magnitude than anti-CD20, MMF, and abatacept. More than 97% of patients treated with anti-cytokine therapies including TNFi, interleukin-17 and interleukin-6 inhibitors had an appropriate immunogenic response when used as monotherapy. The combination of TNFi with MTX significantly reduced the rate of seropositivity to 93%, p=0.04. Age over 65 years, a diagnosis of RA, IIM, ANCA-associated vascilitis, and treatment with GC, MMF, anti-CD20, and abatacept were associated with a reduced likelihood of seropositivity.
There were no post-vaccination symptomatic cases of COVID-19 among AIIRD patients and one mild case in the control group. Major adverse events in AIIRD patients included death (n=2) several weeks after the second vaccine dose, non-disseminated herpes zoster (n=6), uveitis (n=2), and pericarditis (n=1). Post-vaccination disease activity remained stable in the majority of patients.
Conclusion: Vaccination with the BNTb262 vaccine resulted in an adequate immunogenic response with an acceptable safety profile in the majority of patients with AIIRD. Treatment with GC, rituximab, MMF, and abatacept may impair BNT162b2-induced immunogenicity. Postponing administration of rituximab, when clinically feasible, seems to be reasonable to improve vaccine-induced immunogenicity. Holding treatment with abatacept and MMF may be considered on an individual basis.
Disclosure of Interests: None declared
Statistics from Altmetric.com
If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.