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Handling editor Josef S Smolen
Contributors TO and JKW participated in study design, acquisition of data, analysis and interpretation of data and draft and revision of the manuscript. EM and EL participated in study design, acquisition and interpretation of data and revision of the manuscript. JM, KA, AJ, MG and LEK participated in study design, interpretation of data and revision of the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Funding This study was supported by unrestricted grants from Skåne University Hospital, the Swedish Rheumatism Association, the Anna-Greta Crafoord Foundation, the Kock Foundation and the Lundgren Foundation. Funding from the Faculty of Medicine, Lund University, contributed to financing EM’s research time. Funding from the Hedlund Foundation and the Österlund Foundation contributed to financing JM’s research time. Grants to researchers in public healthcare from the Swedish government (ALF) contributed to financing JKW’s, JM’s, KA’s and TO’s research time.
Disclaimer The sponsors had no role in study design, data collection, data analysis, data interpretation or writing of the report.
Competing interests JKW has received consultancy fees from AbbVie, Celgene, Eli Lilly, Novartis and UCB Pharma (unrelated to the present work). JM has received investigator-initiated study funding from AbbVie, Ferring, Pfizer and Takeda and has served as a speaker, a consultant and/or an advisory board member for AbbVie, Ferring, Janssen-Cilag, Svar/EuroDiagnostica, Takeda and Tillotts (unrelated to the present work). MG has received consultancy fees from AbbVie, Novartis and Pfizer (unrelated to the present work). LEK has received consultancy and speaker’s bureau fees from AbbVie, Amgen, Biogen, Bristol-Myers Squibb (BMS), Celgene, Eli Lilly, Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Merck, Sharp & Dohme (MSD), Novartis, Pfizer, Roche, Sanofi and UCB Pharma (unrelated to the present work). Remaining authors report no competing interests.
Patient consent for publication Not required.
Ethics approval Ethical approval for the SPARTAKUS study has been granted by the Regional Ethics Committee in Lund, Sweden (Dnr. 2015/436 with amendment Dnr. 2018/238). Oral and written informed consent was granted by all patients and controls before entry in the study.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.