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Handling editor Josef S Smolen
Contributors NN, AK, NT: conceived and designed the study, performed genotyping and statistical analysis, interpreted the data and wrote the manuscript. K-eS, FH, SK, HY, HF, KS, AH, TM, KN, TSug, KY, TSum, ST: recruited patients and analysed clinical data. AS, SH: centrally evaluated HRCT images. SO, HH, HM, YA, MH: organised study groups, conceived the study and interpreted the data. All authors read and approved the manuscript.
Funding This study was supported by the grants from the Japan Agency for Medical Research and Development "The Study Group for Strategic Exploration of Drug Seeds for ANCA Associated Vasculitis and Construction of Clinical Evidence (grant number 17ek0109104h0003)”, ”The Strategic Study Group to Establish the Evidence for Intractable Vasculitis Guideline (grant number 17ek0109121h0003)” and “Multitiered study to address clinical questions for management of intractable vasculitides (grant number 18ek0109360h001)", and an award grant from Japan College of Rheumatology.
Competing interests FH is employed by The Department of Lifetime Clinical Immunology of Tokyo Medical and Dental University (TMDU), which has received unrestricted research grants from Chugai Pharmaceutical Co, Ltd. Ono Pharmaceuticals; Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma Co. UCB Japan; CSL Behring; Towa Pharmaceutical Co, Ltd. Abbvie Japan Co, Ltd. Japan Blood Products Organization; Ayumi Pharmaceutical Co; and Nippon Kayaku Co, Ltd, with which TMDU currently pays the salary of FH. FH has also received speaking fees from Ono Pharmaceuticals, Astellas Pharma Inc. Sumitomo Dainippon Pharma and Chugai Pharmaceutical Co, Ltd. KS has received lecture fee from Chugai. HF has the following conflicts, and the following funders are supported wholly or in part by the indicated pharmaceutical companies. The Japan Research Foundation for Clinical Pharmacology is run by Daiichi Sankyo, the Takeda Science Foundation is supported by an endowment from Takeda Pharmaceutical Company and the Nakatomi Foundation was established by Hisamitsu Pharmaceutical Co, Inc. The Daiwa Securities Health Foundation was established by Daiwa Securities Group Inc. and Mitsui Sumitomo Insurance Welfare Foundation was established by Mitsui Sumitomo Insurance Co, Ltd. HF was supported by research grants from Bristol-Myers Squibb Co. HF received honoraria from Ajinomoto Co, Inc., Daiichi Sankyo Co., Ltd., Dainippon Sumitomo Pharma Co, Ltd. Pfizer Japan Inc, and Takeda Pharmaceutical Company, Luminex Japan Corporation Ltd, and Ayumi Pharmaceutical Corporation. ST was supported by research grants from Abbott Japan Co, Ltd, Astellas Pharma Inc, Chugai Pharmaceutical Co, Ltd. Eisai Co, Ltd, Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma Corporation, Merck Sharp and Dohme Inc. Pfizer Japan Inc, Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited and Teijin Pharma Limited. TSug has received honoraria from Chugai Pharmaceutical Co, Ltd. Takeda Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd, Mitsubishi-Tanabe Pharma Co, Astellas Pharma Inc, Bristol Myers Squibb K.K. Pfizer Japan Inc, UCB Japan Co. Ltd, and Abbvie Japan Co, Ltd, and has received research grant support from Takeda Pharmaceutical Co, Ltd, Astellas Pharma Inc, and Teijin Pharma Ltd. AH has received research funding from Chugai Pharmaceutical Co, Ltd. HM is a consultant for AbbVie and Teijin, receives speaker honoraria from Boehringer-Ingelheim. MH has received research grants and/or honoraria from Abbott Japan Co, Ltd. Astellas Pharma Inc; Bristol-Myers Squibb K.K. Chugai Pharmaceutical Co, Ltd. Eisai Co, Ltd. Janssen Pharmaceutical K.K. Mitsubishi Tanabe Pharma Co; Santen Pharmaceutical Co; Ltd. Takeda Pharmaceutical Co, Ltd. Teijin Pharma, Ltd. and Pfizer Japan Inc. NT has received 2015 Japan College of Rheumatology Award from Japan College of Rheumatology and 2017 Novartis Rheumatology Award from Japan Rheumatism Association with research fundings, and speaker’s honoraria from Ayumi Pharmaceutical Corporation.
Patient consent for publication Not required.
Ethics approval The study protocol was reviewed and approved by the Ethics Committees of University of Tsukuba, Tokyo Women’s Medical University, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, National Hospital Organization Sagamihara Hospital, Okayama University, and all the institutes involved in the recruitment of subjects.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.
Data sharing statement All data are presented in the paper and in the supplementary material.
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