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Handling editor Josef S Smolen
Contributors MY drafted the manuscript for publication. All authors contributed to the review of drafts of the manuscript. MY, RAW and AJM devised the methodological design for this study. MY carried out all statistical analyses. RL acts as the data guardian and K-TK as the guarantor for the data from EPIC-Norfolk.
Funding EPIC-Norfolk is supported by the Medical Research Council UK (G1000143) and Cancer Research UK (C864/A14136). MY was funded on a Clinical Fellowship by Arthritis Research UK (now known as Versus Arthritis) in order to carry out a PhD and is currently funded by the National Institute for Health Research as a clinical lecturer. The views expressed in this publication are those of the authors and not necessarily those of the NHS, the NIHR, Arthritis Research UK or the Department of Health.
Competing interests None declared.
Patient consent Not required.
Ethics approval The study complies with the Declaration of Helsinki. The Norwich District Health Authority Ethics Committee approved the study and all participants gave written informed consent.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.
Data sharing statement EPIC-Norfolk custodians and collaborators are committed to open and collaborative analysis. Requests for data sharing are reviewed by the committee and forms can be found at http://www.srl.cam.ac.uk/epic/contact/index.shtml.
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