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OP0320 S100a9 hampers osteoclast differentiation from circulating precursors by reducing the expression of rank
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  1. M.H. Van Den Bosch1,
  2. I. Di Ceglie1,
  3. T. Vogl2,
  4. J. Roth2,
  5. C.S. Goodyear3,
  6. P.M. van der Kraan1,
  7. A.B. Blom1,
  8. P.L. van Lent1
  1. 1Experimental Rheumatology, Radboud university medical center, Nijmegen, Netherlands
  2. 2Institut für Immonologie, Münster, Germany
  3. 3Institute of Infection, Immunity and Inflammation, Glasgow, UK

Abstract

Background High levels of the damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) S100A8 and S100A9 are produced in the synovium during both experimental and human rheumatoid arthritis (RA). These alarmins have been implicated in inflammation-induced bone resorption. We and others have previously shown that stimulation of mature osteoclasts with S100A8/A9 results in increased numbers and bone resorptive activity. In agreement, reduced bone destruction was observed after induction of experimental RA models in S100a9-/- mice. However, the effects of S100A8/A9 on monocyte-to-osteoclast differentiation remain elusive.

Objectives Here, we investigated the effects of S100A9 on CD14+ monocytes and their potential to differentiate into osteoclasts.

Methods CD14+ monocytes were isolated from buffy coats of healthy donors using density gradient centrifugation and magnetic cell sorting. Cells were differentiated into osteoclasts with macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and Receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B (RANK) ligand (RANKL) in the presence or absence of S100A9. mRNA expression was determined by RT-qPCR and protein expression was determined using Luminex analysis. Moreover, osteoclast differentiation was assessed using Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining and the resorptive capacity was determined using mineral-coated plates. RANK protein expression was assessed using FACS.

Results We observed that S100A9 stimulation of monocytes resulted in a strong induction of various pro-inflammatory factors, such as interleukin (IL)1β, IL6, IL8, and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)α after 24 hour, both on the mRNA and protein level. Interestingly, we observed a strong decrease in the number of multinucleated osteoclasts as determined by TRAP staining, at day 6 and 8 after start of the cultures. In agreement with this, the cells showed a strongly reduced resorptive capacity after 10 days of culture. We demonstrated that already a 24 hour stimulation with S100A9 strongly reduced the osteoclastogenic potential of the CD14+ monocytes. Finally, to determine the mechanism of how this short S100A9 stimulation might reduce the osteoclast development, we determined the protein expression of the RANK receptor, which is crucial for osteoclast differentiation. We observed that S100A9 stimulation hampered the M-CSF-induced upregulation of RANK after 24 hours, suggesting that this underlies the hampered osteoclast differentiation. Interestingly, this S100A9-induced decreased RANK expression could be reversed by addition of the TNFα-inhibitor etanercept, but not by addition of IL1 receptor antagonist.

Conclusions Whereas S100A8/A9 have been previously shown to stimulate the numbers and resorptive capacity of mature osteoclasts, we here show that stimulation of monocytes with S100A9 strongly inhibits their osteoclastogenic potential, possibly via TNFα-induced reduction of RANK expression. This suggests that S100A8/A9 does not solely stimulate osteoclast formation and function but rather that the timing of exposure to S100A8/A9 is an important determinant for monocyte-to-osteoclast differentiation.

Disclosure of Interest None declared

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