Background: Cigarette smoking supposed to be a risk factor for osteoporosis. There is an inverse relationship between smoking and both bone mass and fracture risk. Tobacco smoking is the most important single source of cadmium exposure in the general population. The absorption of cadmium from the lungs is much more effective than that from the gut.
Objectives: This study was designed to evaluate the effect of cigarette smoking on bone mineral density, due to cadmium toxicity.
Methods: this study was carried on 100 persons, selected from AL-Azhar university hospital and divided into three groups: group I: included 40 persons with active smokers; group II: included 40 persons with passive smokers and group III included 20 nonsmokers. All persons were subjected to full history taking, thorough clinical examination, routine lab tests, serum and urinary cadmium and lead, and bone mineral density was measured by DEXA.
Results: Serum and urinary cadmium and lead were statistically significantly higher in group I in comparison to groups II or III and in group II in comparison to group III. Also, there was statistically significant decrease of BMD in group I in comparison to either group II or group III and in group II in comparison to group III. There was an inverse statistically significant correlation between serum and urinary cadmium and bone mineral density.
Conclusions: Results of the present study revealed that: there are harmful effects of smoking on the bone mineral density and it may be occurred by direct (increased blood and urinary levels of both cadmium and lead) or indirect effects (effects of both renal and liver functions) of cadmium and lead.
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Disclosure of Interest None declared
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