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Increase in circulating cells coexpressing M1 and M2 macrophage surface markers in patients with systemic sclerosis

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  • SS and ACT contributed equally.

  • Handling editor Josef S Smolen

  • Contributors SS, ACT and MC designed the study, analysed the data, carried out the statistical analysis and wrote the manuscript; PC performed the flow cytometry analysis; VT and BR enrolled the patients with systemic sclerosis and healthy subjects and collected the demographic and clinical parameters of the patients with SSc; RB and PM managed and prepared the samples for the flow cytometry analysis; AS, SP and CP supervised the enrolment of the patients with SSc and the healthy subjects and the clinical data collection; VS revised the critical and important intellectual contents of the manuscript.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Patient consent Not required.

  • Ethics approval Local Ethics committee (protocol number 273-REG-2015).

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • Correction notice This article has been corrected since it published Online First. The equal contribution statement has been added.