Objectives To evaluate the long-term efficacy and safety of canakinumab in patients with active systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA).
Methods Patients (2–19 years) entered two phase III studies and continued in the long-term extension (LTE) study. Efficacy assessments were performed every 3 months, including adapted JIA American College of Rheumatology (aJIA-ACR) criteria, Juvenile Arthritis Disease Activity Score (JADAS) and ACR clinical remission on medication criteria (CRACR). Efficacy analyses are reported as per the intent-to-treat population.
Results 144 of the 177 patients (81%) enrolled in the core study entered the LTE. Overall, 75 patients (42%) completed and 102 (58%) discontinued mainly for inefficacy (63/102, 62%), with higher discontinuation rates noted in the late responders group (n=25/31, 81%) versus early responders (n=11/38, 29%). At 2 years, aJIA-ACR 50/70/90 response rates were 62%, 61% and 54%, respectively. CRACR was achieved by 20% of patients at month 6; 32% at 2 years. A JADAS low disease activity score was achieved by 49% of patients at 2 years. Efficacy results were maintained up to 5 years. Of the 128/177 (72.3%) patients on glucocorticoids, 20 (15.6%) discontinued and 28 (22%) tapered to 0.150 mg/kg/day. Seven patients discontinued canakinumab due to CR. There were 13 macrophage activation syndrome (three previously reported) and no additional deaths (three previously reported). No new safety findings were observed.
Conclusion Response to canakinumab treatment was sustained and associated with substantial glucocorticoid dose reduction or discontinuation and a relatively low retention-on-treatment rate. No new safety findings were observed on long-term use of canakinumab.
- clinical trial
- long-term extension
- systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis.
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NR and HIB contributed equally.
Handling editor Josef S Smolen
Contributors The study was designed jointly by academic authors (NR, HIB, AM and DJL) and Novartis, with data collected by PRINTO/PRCSG investigators. The first and subsequent versions of the manuscript were written by NR and HIB, edited by AM and DJL and revised critically by all remaining coauthors. All authors attest to the completeness and veracity of data and data analyses. Consistency in reporting the study data to healthcare authorities and institutional review boards was ensured by Novartis. All authors had full access to study data, reviewed and revised the manuscript and approved the final version to be published. All authors were involved in the decision to submit the manuscript for publication and had the right to accept or reject comments or suggestions.
Funding This study was funded by Novartis Pharma.
Competing interests NR: consultant and speaker’s bureaus from AbbVie, Ablynx, Amgen, AstraZeneca, Baxalta Biosimilars, Biogen Idec, Boehringer Ingelheim, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Celgene, Eli-Lilly, EMD Serono, Gilead Sciences, Janssen, MedImmune, Novartis, Pfizer, R-Pharm, Roche, Sanofi, Servier, Takeda; NR works as a full-time public employee of the public hospital Istituto Giannina Gaslini, which has received contributions from Bristol-Myers Squibb, Hoffman-La Roche, Janssen, Novartis, Pfizer, Sobi for the coordination activity of the PRINTO network. HIB: consultant: AstraZeneca, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Genentech, Janssen, Novartis, Pfizer, Sanofi, Takeda; speaker’s bureaus: Genentech, Novartis Pierre Quartier; has received consultant fees from Novimmune, Novartis and SOBI; has received speaker’s bureaus from Abbvie, BMS, Chugai-Roche, Lilly, Novartis, Pfizer and Sobi; has acted as coordinator or investigator in clinical trials for Abbvie, BMS, Chugai-Roche, Novartis, Sanofi, Sobi; has acted as member of a data monitoring board committee for Sanofi. NMW has received grant/research support from AbbVie; has received consultant fees from AbbVie, Sobi and Novartis. GH has received speaker’s bureaus from AbbVie, Boehringer Ingelheim, Chugai, MSD, Novartis, Pfizer, Roche and Sobi; has received scientific grants from AbbVie, Chugai, MSD, Novartis, Pfizer and Roche. OK has received speaker’s bureaus from Novartis, Roche, Pfizer and Abbvie. RS has received consultant fees from Novartis, Sobi and Novimmune. JLA has received consultant fees and speaker’s bureaus from AbbVie, Gebro, Novartis, Pfizer, Roche, Sanofi and Sobi. RC has received consultant fees and speaker’s bureaus from Bristol-Myers Squibb, Janssen, Novartis, Pfizer, Sanofi, Roche, Lilly and GlaxoSmithKline. HEF has acted as member of advisory boards for AbbVie, Novartis, Pfizer, Sanofi and Sobi; has received unrestricted educational bursaries from Pfizer, Genzyme, BioMarin and Sobi to develop educational resources for healthcare professionals. DF has received grant/research support from Pfizer and Novartis; has received consultant fees from Novartis, Pfizer, Chugai-Roche and Sobi; has received speaker’s bureaus from Novartis. SCR has received grants for clinical research from Novartis. AVR has received honoraria and participated in Advisory Boards for Novartis. RT has received lecture fees from Pfizer and Bristol-Myers Squibb. JL received fees from Novartis for conducting the statistical analysis. EV is an employee of Novartis Pharma, Basel, Switzerland. AM has no conflicts of interest to declare since March 2016 when he became the Scientific Director of the Istituto Giannina Gaslini, because this role does not allow him to render private consultancy resulting in personal income; consultant on behalf of the Istituto Giannina Gaslini: AbbVie, Boehringer, Novartis, R-Pharm. Istituto Giannina Gaslini has received contributions from Bristol-Myers Squibb, Hoffman-La Roche, Janssen, Novartis, Pfizer, Sobi for the coordination activity of the PRINTO network. DJL has received grant/research support from AbbVie, Bristol-Myers Squibb, NIH, Pfizer, Roche; speaker’s bureaus from Genentech; consultant of AbbVie, Boehringer Ingelheim, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Celgene, Genentech, GlaxoSmithKline, Janssen, Johnson & Johnson, Novartis, Takeda, UCB. EU, FC, JB, MF, MF-d, RB and TC have nothing to disclose.
Patient consent Parental/guardian consent obtained.
Ethics approval The study was conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki, the International Conference on Harmonisation Guidelines for Good Clinical Practice and local regulations. An institutional review board or independent ethics committee at each site approved the protocol, consent form and any other written information provided to patients or their legal representatives.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.
Data sharing statement All data generated or analysed are included in this article and the supplementary information files.
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