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TLR4+CXCR4+ plasma cells drive nephritis development in systemic lupus erythematosus
  1. Kongyang Ma1,
  2. Jingyi Li2,
  3. Xiaohui Wang1,
  4. Xiang Lin1,
  5. Wenhan Du1,
  6. Xi Yang1,
  7. Fangxiang Mou2,
  8. Yongfei Fang2,
  9. Yanbin Zhao3,
  10. Xiaoping Hong3,
  11. Kwok Wah Chan1,
  12. Xiaoming Zhang4,
  13. Dongzhou Liu3,
  14. Lingyun Sun5,
  15. Liwei Lu1
  1. 1 Department of Pathology and Shenzhen Institute of Research and Innovation, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China
  2. 2 Department of Rheumatology and Immunology, The First Hospital Affiliated to Army Medical University, Chongqing, China
  3. 3 Department of Rheumatology and Immunology, Shenzhen People’s Hospital, The Second Clinical Medical College of Jinan University, Shenzhen, China
  4. 4 Institut Pasteur of Shanghai, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China
  5. 5 Department of Rheumatology and Immunology, Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital, The Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School, Nanjing, China
  1. Correspondence to Prof Dongzhou Liu, Department of Rheumatology and Immunology Shenzhen People’s Hospital, The Second Clinical Medical College of Jinan University Shenzhen China ; liu_dz2001{at}sina.com, Prof Lingyun Sun, Department of Rheumatology and Immunology Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital, The Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing University Medical School Nanjing China ; lingyunsun{at}nju.edu.cn and Professor Liwei Lu, Department of Pathology and Shenzhen Institute of Research and Innovation, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China ; liweilu{at}hku.hk

Footnotes

  • KM and JL contributed equally.

  • Handling editor Josef S Smolen

  • Contributors KM, XW, XL, WD and XY designed and performed mouse experiments and statistical analysis. JL, FM, YF and YZ performed experiments with human samples. KWC, XH, DL, XZ and LS participated in the design of the study and helped in analysing data. KM, LS and LL supervised the study and wrote the manuscript.

  • Funding This work was supported by grants from the National Basic Research Program of China (No 2014CB541904), National Natural Science Foundation of China (No 81771761, 81771735), Sanming Project of Medicine in Shenzhen (SZSM201512019), Hong Kong Croucher Foundation (260960116) and the General Research Fund, Hong Kong Research Grants Council (No 17114515) and Interdisciplinary Innovation Team and External Cooperation Program (No. GJHZ201312), Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Patient consent Not required.

  • Ethics approval All protocols using human samples were approved by Ethics Committee of the Second Affiliated Hospital of Jinan University, Ethics Committee of the First Hospital Affiliated to Army Medical University and Institutional Review Board of the University of Hong Kong/Hospital Authority Hong Kong Western Cluster (HKU/HA HKW IRB). All protocols involving live animals were approved by the Committee on the Use of Live Animals in Teaching and Research (CULATR) at The University of Hong Kong.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

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Footnotes

  • KM and JL contributed equally.

  • Handling editor Josef S Smolen

  • Contributors KM, XW, XL, WD and XY designed and performed mouse experiments and statistical analysis. JL, FM, YF and YZ performed experiments with human samples. KWC, XH, DL, XZ and LS participated in the design of the study and helped in analysing data. KM, LS and LL supervised the study and wrote the manuscript.

  • Funding This work was supported by grants from the National Basic Research Program of China (No 2014CB541904), National Natural Science Foundation of China (No 81771761, 81771735), Sanming Project of Medicine in Shenzhen (SZSM201512019), Hong Kong Croucher Foundation (260960116) and the General Research Fund, Hong Kong Research Grants Council (No 17114515) and Interdisciplinary Innovation Team and External Cooperation Program (No. GJHZ201312), Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Patient consent Not required.

  • Ethics approval All protocols using human samples were approved by Ethics Committee of the Second Affiliated Hospital of Jinan University, Ethics Committee of the First Hospital Affiliated to Army Medical University and Institutional Review Board of the University of Hong Kong/Hospital Authority Hong Kong Western Cluster (HKU/HA HKW IRB). All protocols involving live animals were approved by the Committee on the Use of Live Animals in Teaching and Research (CULATR) at The University of Hong Kong.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

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