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Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common degenerative joint disease. The aetiology of OA is multifactorial, including joint injury, obesity, ageing and heredity. Inactivation of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) or its downstream molecules may be an important signalling event contributing to OA pathogenesis because mutations of Smad3, a central molecule in TGF-β signalling, have been found in patients with early-onset OA.1–3 It has been known for many years that TGF-β promotes matrix protein …
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