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Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is crucial for the growth and survival of regulatory T cells (Treg) and, thus, for the control of autoimmunity.1 ,2 In previous studies, we have proven a causal relationship between an acquired IL-2-deficiency, defects in Treg biology and the development of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).3 Accordingly, we showed that compensation of IL-2 deficiency by IL-2 therapy corrects associated Treg defects and ameliorates already established disease in lupus-prone mice.3 In line with this, two independent clinical studies showed recently that low-dose IL-2 induced expansion of the Treg pool and reduced clinical symptoms in two different immunological diseases without known IL-2 deficiency.4 ,5 These promising clinical findings in conjunction with preclinical data3 ,6 ,7 provide strong rationales for an IL-2-based immunotherapy of SLE in order to restore Treg activity and, thus, to re-establish endogenous mechanisms of tolerance that can counteract autoimmunity.
Here we report a rapid and robust reduction of disease activity in parallel with a remarkable expansion of the Treg population by low-dose IL-2 therapy in one patient with a long-term history of SLE and increased disease activity refractory …
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