Article Text

Download PDFPDF
Fluorescence optical imaging as a novel technique for the visualisation of inflammation in patients with systemic sclerosis with Raynaud’s phenomenon: a pilot study
  1. Alexander Pfeil1,
  2. Karl F Drummer1,
  3. Peter Oelzner1,
  4. Joachim Böttcher2,
  5. Christian Jung3,
  6. Gunter Wolf1
  1. 1 Department of Internal Medicine III, Jena University Hospital—Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Jena, Germany
  2. 2 Institute of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, SRH Wald-Klinikum Gera, Gera, Germany
  3. 3 Department of Internal Medicine I, Jena University Hospital—Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Jena, Germany
  1. Correspondence to Dr Alexander Pfeil, Department of Internal Medicine III, Jena University Hospital—Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Erlanger Allee 101, Jena 07747, Germany; alexander.pfeil{at}

Statistics from

Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a connective tissue disease affecting various organs including the peripheral vessels and resulting in Raynaud`s phenomenon. For treatment of Raynaud´s phenomenon, the vasodilator Prostaglandin I2 analogue iloprost is widely used. Fluorescence optical imaging (FOI) is an in vivo technique to visualise inflammation based on the accumulation of fluorescence optical contrast media (indocyanine green, ICG) which is proved in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.1 The aim of this prospective pilot-study was to visualise inflammation before and after treatment with iloprost using FOI in patients with SSc and associated Raynaud`s phenomenon (figure 1).

Figure 1

(A) Normal fluorescence optical imaging of a healthy control. (B) Initial imaging of the enhancement of indocyanine green by fluorescence optical imaging as a marker of inflammatory activity in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) and associated Raynaud`s phenomenon before the application of iloprost (day 0). (C) …

View Full Text


  • Contributors Study design: AP, PO and KD. Data collection: AP, KD and CJ. Image interpretation: AP, KD and JB. Statistical analysis: AP and JB. Manuscript writing: AP and GW. Manuscript editing: PO and GW.

  • Funding The project received a grant from Bayer Vital GmbH in December 2013.

  • Competing interests None.

  • Patient consent Obtained.

  • Ethics approval Ethics Committee of Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

Request Permissions

If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.