Objectives The importance of β2-glycoprotein I (β2GPI)-specific CD4+ T cells in the development of pathogenic processes in patients with antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) and APS mouse models is well established. Therefore, our objective is to manipulate the β2GPI specific CD4+ T cells using tolerogenic dendritic cells (tDCs) to induce tolerance. We aim to evaluate the capability of tDCs to induce antigen-specific tolerance in effector/memory T cells from patients with APS and to elucidate the involved mechanism.
Methods DCs and tDCs were produced from patients with APS peripheral-blood-monocytes, using specific cytokines. β2GPI-specific tolerance induction was investigated by coculturing control DC (cDC) or tDC, β2GPI-loaded, with autologous effector/memory T cells, evaluating the proliferative response, phenotype, cytokines secretion, viability and regulatory T cells.
Results Human monocyte-derived DCs treated with interleukin (IL)-10 and transforming growth factor β-1 (10/TGF-DC) induced β2GPI-specific-unresponsiveness in effector/memory CD4+ T cells (46.5%±26.0 less proliferation) in 16 of 20 analysed patients with APS, without affecting the proliferative response to an unrelated candidin. In five analysed patients, 10/TGF-DC-stimulated T cells acquired an IL-2lowinterferon γlowIL-10high cytokine profile, with just a propensity to express higher numbers of Foxp3+CTLA-4+ cells, but with an evident suppressive ability. In four of 10 analysed patients, 10/TGF-DC-stimulated T cell hyporesponsiveness could not be reverted and showed higher percentages of late apoptosis, p<0.02.
Conclusions The inherent tolerance induction resistance of activated T cells present during the development of autoimmune diseases has delayed the application of tDC as an alternative therapy. This study highlights the 10/TGF-DC feasibility to induce antigen-specific unresponsiveness in autoreactive T cells generated in patients with APS by inducing apoptosis or T cells with regulatory abilities.
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Funding HTA was supported by a grant from ICyTDF (BI09-532). This study was supported by The Binational USA-Israel Foundation number 2009099.
Competing interests None.
Patient consent Obtained.
Ethics approval Ethical approval was obtained from the Sheba Medical Center Helsinki Committee.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally reviewed.