Experimental and clinical data support the hypothesis that both high and low bone mineral density (BMD) conditions, including osteoporosis, may induce osteoarthritis. However, these conditions do not always predispose to osteoarthritis progression. Four clinical settings could arise from this relationship, and furthermore two phenotypes may be identified whether early osteoarthritis coexists with high or low BMD.
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Funding This work was supported by research grants from Spanish Instituto de Salud Carlos III PS09/01625 and PS09/0034, awarded to GH-B and RL.
Competing interests None.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.
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