Article Text

Download PDFPDF
Bone development and inflammatory disease is regulated by AP-1 (Fos/Jun)
  1. E F Wagner
  1. Correspondence to Dr E F Wagner, BBVA Foundation-CNIO Cancer Cell Biology Program, Spanish National Cancer Centre (CNIO), c/Melchor Fern√°ndez Almagro 3, E-28029 Madrid, Spain; ewagner{at}


The Fos and Jun proteins are members of the AP-1 transcription factor complex, which is a central regulator for many cellular functions. This paper summarises the important functions of Fos proteins in bone development, with special emphasis on the Fos-related proteins Fra-1 and Fra-2. These factors determine the functions of osteoblasts and osteoclasts and regulate cytokine signalling during bone development. Likewise, the Jun proteins control the expression of cytokines and chemokines and are probably causally involved in inflammatory skin diseases such as psoriasis. Investigations into the molecular mechanisms responsible for skin inflammation have revealed that Jun proteins control cytokine expression, such as granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, IL-6 and tumour necrosis factor alpha by transcriptional and posttranscriptional pathways. Finally, the paper discusses the relevance of the Jun-dependent mouse model for psoriasis for preclinical studies in the field of anti-angiogenic therapies.

Statistics from

Request Permissions

If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.


  • Competing interests None.

  • Provenance and Peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.