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Identification of dairy fractions with anti-inflammatory properties in models of acute gout
  1. Nicola Dalbeth1,
  2. Eric Gracey1,
  3. Bregina Pool1,
  4. Karen Callon1,
  5. Fiona M McQueen2,
  6. Jillian Cornish1,
  7. Alastair MacGibbon3,
  8. Kate Palmano3
  1. 1Bone Research Group, Department of Medicine, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand
  2. 2Department of Molecular Medicine, University of Auckland, Auckland, New Zealand
  3. 3Fonterra Research Centre, Palmerston North, New Zealand
  1. Correspondence to Dr Nicola Dalbeth, Bone Research Group, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, University of Auckland, 85 Park Road, Grafton, Auckland, New Zealand; n.dalbeth{at}


Aims Large epidemiological studies have shown that low-fat dairy intake reduces the risk of developing gout. It was hypothesised that factors within dairy fractions inhibit the inflammatory response to monosodium urate monohydrate (MSU) crystals.

Methods Dairy fractions were tested in MSU crystal-stimulated THP-1 cell assays. Fractions with inhibitory effects were then tested in the murine urate peritonitis model.

Results Two dairy fractions were found to have consistent inhibitory effects. Glycomacropeptide (GMP) and G600 milk fat extract both inhibited interleukin-1β (IL1β) gene and protein expression in the THP-1 cell assay. Conversely, standard milk fat increased IL8 protein expression in the THP-1 cell assay. Oral administration of GMP and G600 milk fat extract inhibited cellular influx in the urate peritonitis model.

Conclusions Both protein and lipid fractions within dairy products are capable of modulating the inflammatory response to MSU crystals.

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  • Funding This investigator-initiated study was funded by LactoPharma (a joint venture between Fonterra Ltd, Fonterra R&D Ltd and Auckland UniServices Ltd) and the New Zealand Government Foundation for Research Science and Technology.

  • Competing interests KP and AM are employees of Fonterra Co-operative Group Ltd. ND, KP and AM are inventors on a patent application.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

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