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Clinical presentation of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) varies from mild deformity of small joints to mutilating severe arthritis causing remarkable functional disorder and restriction of daily life activities. Prediction of disease outcome may allow better targeting of aggressive treatment. Recently, anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody (anti-CCP) has been reported to be associated with disease outcomes.1–5 Peptidylarginine deiminase type 4 (PADI4), encoding citrullinating enzyme, was identified as one of the RA susceptibility genes and was also reported to be associated with the level of anti-CCP in RA patients.6 These findings suggest the hypothesis that PADI4 determines disease severity of RA as well as its susceptibility. Our aim was to investigate the association between …
Funding: This work was supported by a grant provided by the Japan Orthopaedics and Traumatology Foundation (to KI) and a Grant-in-Aid for Young Scientists from the Japanese Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (to KI).
Competing interests: None.