Objective: To determine the mechanism of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-13 upregulation in osteoarthritic synovial fibroblasts (OASF) in response to stimulation with basic calcium phosphate (BCP) crystals and to investigate the effect of prostaglandin (PG)E2 on BCP crystal-stimulated MMP expression.
Methods: Primary OASF were stimulated with BCP crystals; mRNA expression was measured by real-time reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction and protein levels were assessed by Western blotting.
Results: BCP crystals upregulated MMP-13 mRNA expression over 20-fold and increased MMP-13 protein production in OASF. BCP crystal-stimulated MMP-13 mRNA expression was blocked by inhibition of the extracellular regulated kinase (ERK1/2) and p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways and inhibition of the activation of nuclear factor κB. Addition of exogenous PGE2 downregulated BCP crystal-stimulated MMP-13 expression. In contrast, PGE2 upregulated, and had no effect, on BCP crystal stimulated MMP-3 and MMP-1 mRNA expression, respectively. These effects of PGE2 were diminished by L-161,982, a selective EP4 receptor antagonist, and mimicked by CAY10399, a selective EP2 receptor agonist, and forskolin, an adenylate cyclase activator.
Conclusions: These data suggest that BCP crystal induction of MMP-13 expression may involve the ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK pathways and activation of nuclear factor κB; this upregulation of MMP-13 may contribute to the accelerated cartilage breakdown in BCP crystal-associated osteoarthritis. PGE2 had contrasting effects on BCP crystal-stimulated MMP-3 and MMP-13 mRNA expression, mediated in an EP2/EP4/cAMP-dependent manner, suggesting that PGE2 may have beneficial as well as deleterious effects in BCP crystal-associated osteoarthritis.
Statistics from Altmetric.com
If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.
Competing interests: None.
Funding: This work was funded by the Health Research Board, Wellcome Trust and the PRTLI Cycle III.
▸ Additional figure (fig 7) is published online only at http://ard.bmj.com/content/vol67/issue12