Background: Non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice exhibit autoimmune diabetes and Sjögren’s-like syndrome.
Objective: To test whether a treatment that reverses end-stage diabetes in the NOD mouse would affect their Sjögren’s-like syndrome.
Methods: NOD mice have a proteasome defect. Improperly selected naive T cells escape, but can be killed by reintroducing major histocompatibility complex class I self-peptides on matched normal splenocytes. The proteasome defect also impairs nuclear factor kB, a transcription factor in pathogenic memory T cells, increasing their susceptibility to tumour necrosis factor-induced apoptosis stimulated through complete Freund’s adjuvant (CFA). The impact of this two-limb therapy (injections of matched normal splenocytes and CFA) on the autoimmune salivary gland disease of the NOD mice was studied.
Results: All NOD mice receiving the above treatment had a complete recovery of salivary flow and were protected from diabetes. Restoration of salivary flow could be the result of a combination of rescue and regeneration of the gland, as confirmed by immunohistochemical analysis. All untreated NOD mice showed a continuous decline in salivary flow, followed by hyperglycaemia and death.
Conclusion: This study establishes that a brief intervention in NOD mice with Sjögren’s-like syndrome can reverse salivary gland dysfunction.
- CFA, complete Freund’s adjuvant
- FISH, fluorescence in situ hybridisation
- LMP, latent membrane protein
- MHC, major histocompatibility complex
- NFκB, nuclear factor κB
- NOD, non-obese diabetic
- SFR, salivary flow rate
- TNF, tumour necrosis factor
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