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Clinical manifestations of the anti-phospholipid syndrome as defined by the updated Sapporo classification criteria
  1. Jesse Drijkoningen,
  2. Jan Damoiseaux,
  3. Pieter van Paassen,
  4. Jan Willem Cohen Tervaert
  1. Department of Clinical and Experimental Immunology, University Hospital Maastricht, Maastricht, The Netherlands
  1. Jan Damoiseaux, Ph.D., Department of Clinical and Experimental Immunology, University Hospital Maastricht, PO Box 5800, 6202 AZ Maastricht, The Netherlands; jdam{at}

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The antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is characterised by thrombosis and recurrent fetal loss accompanied by the presence of lupus anticoagulant (LA) and/or anti-cardiolipin antibodies (aCLA).1 2 Anti-phospholipid (aPL) antibodies require a protein cofactor, β2-glycoprotein 1 (β2-GP1) or prothrombin, for proper binding.35 Patients may also present with antibodies to β2-GP1, but not LA or aCLA. Originally, they were classified as having the anti-phospholipid/cofactor syndrome,6 7 but recently the Sapporo classification criteria have been updated by including the β2-GP1-antibodies.8

We retrospectively evaluated the clinical manifestations of APS in 105 consecutive patients that presented with the suspicion of APS and/or …

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  • Competing interest statement: None of the authors have any competing interest.

  • Abbreviations:
    anti-cardiolipin antibodies
    antiphospholipid syndrome
    lupus anticoagulant