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The antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is characterised by thrombosis and recurrent fetal loss accompanied by the presence of lupus anticoagulant (LA) and/or anti-cardiolipin antibodies (aCLA).1 2 Anti-phospholipid (aPL) antibodies require a protein cofactor, β2-glycoprotein 1 (β2-GP1) or prothrombin, for proper binding.3–5 Patients may also present with antibodies to β2-GP1, but not LA or aCLA. Originally, they were classified as having the anti-phospholipid/cofactor syndrome,6 7 but recently the Sapporo classification criteria have been updated by including the β2-GP1-antibodies.8
We retrospectively evaluated the clinical manifestations of APS in 105 consecutive patients that presented with the suspicion of APS and/or …
Competing interest statement: None of the authors have any competing interest.
- anti-cardiolipin antibodies
- antiphospholipid syndrome
- lupus anticoagulant