Background: It is taken for granted that diuretics may induce gout, but there is a general lack of evidence on this topic.
Objectives: To determine the incidence of gout in patients who use diuretics, taking into account concurrent hypertension and cardiovascular diseases.
Methods: A case-control study was designed. From a primary care population all patients with a first gout registration (59 men, 11 women; mean (SD) age 55.1 (13.5)) were identified as cases. To relate the occurrence of gout to diuretic use a matched reference series of three controls for each case was compiled. Conditional logistic regression analyses were applied to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRRs) of gout, and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), in subjects with and without diuretic treatment, hypertension, and cardiovasculardiseases. Additional stratification analyses were made, particularly in the subjects not using diuretics.
Results: The IRRs of gout in subjects with v those without diuretic treatment, hypertension, heart failure, and myocardial infarction were 2.8 (95% CI 1.2 to 6.6), 2.6 (95% CI 1.2 to 5.6), 20.9 (95% CI 2.5 to 173.8), and 1.9 (95% CI 0.7 to 4.7), respectively. After adjustment, the IRR of gout for diuretic use dropped to 0.6 (95% CI 0.2 to 2.0), while the IRRs of gout for hypertension, heart failure, and myocardial infarction were still >1. This was also the case for subjects with hypertension or myocardial infarction, who had not used diuretics.
Conclusion: The results suggest that diuretics do not actually increase the risk of gout. Cardiovascular indications for treatment may have confounded previous inferences.
- case-control study
- cardiovascular diseases
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Published Online First 16 November 2005
Conflict of interest: None.
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